HADITH - IRE FORM 3 Notes

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Types of Hadith

  • In form two, we defined of the term Muhadith.
  • We mentioned that a Muhadith is a pious Muslim who has memorised and narrated a large number of Hadith.
  • We also discussed the stages of the growth and development of Hadith.
  • In this chapter we shall discuss more on Hadith.
  • We shall start by discussing the types of Hadith.
  • There are two types of hadith:

a) Hadith Qudsi (Sacred Hadith)

  • The term “Qudsi” is an Arabic word which literally means, sacred, divine or holy.
  • In the context of Hadith, Qudsi refers to the sacred or divine hadith.
  • This Hadith is called ‘sacred’ or ‘divine’ because it is traced back to Allah (SWT).
  • It is the Hadith which Allah (SWT) communicated directly to the Prophet (PBUH) through inspiration or in a dream, and the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) then communicated it to his people in his own words.
  • It is the saying of the Prophet (PBUH) as revealed to him by Allah (SWT).
  • Although it is a revelation from Allah, it should be understood that this communication is not part of the Qur’an.
  • It is different from the Qur’an because Qur’an is superior.
  • The Holy Qur’an is superior because it is Allah’s wording while in Hadith Qudsi the speech is the Messenger’s (PBUH).
  • This type of Hadith can be easily identified since it opens with: “From what his Lord Has inspired him with” or “Allah the Almighty says”.

 

 

Examples of Hadith Qudsi

  • Abu Hurairah (RA) said that the Messenger of Allah said: Allah (SWT) said: “I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action for someone else's sake as well as Mine will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.
  • Abu Harairah (RA) said that the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah (SWT) said: “Spend (on charity), O son of Adam, and I shall spend on you.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
  • Abu Hurairah (RA) said that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said that Allah (SWT) said: “The gates of Paradise will be opened on Mondays and on Thursdays, and every servant [of Allah] who associates nothing with Allah will be forgiven, except for the man who has a grudge against his brother.”[About them] it will be said: Delay these two until they are reconciled; delay these two until they are reconciled.”(Muslim and Abu Dawud)

Hadith Nabawi

  • ‘Nabawi’ is a word derived from the Arabic term, Nabii (prophet) or Nubuwa (prophet hood)
  • Technically, this is a Hadith which one of the Prophet’s sahabas (companion) reports what the Prophet said, what he did or what he approved to be okay on things that happened in his presence.
  • Hadith Nabawi sumarises the sayings, reports, recommendations or teachings of the Holy Prophet that evolved out of his own initiative or the way he responded to questions, the solutions he offered to the arising circumstances and his interpretation of the Holy Qur’an.
  • In this type of Hadith, the speech and the thoughts belong to the Messenger of Allah.
  • The Hadith usually begins with the words: “The Messenger of Allah said” or “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying” or “I saw the messenger of Allah doing

 

Difference between Hadith Qudsi and Hadith Nabawi

  • We have learnt from the definition of Hadith Qudsi and Hadith Nabawi that the two types of Hadith were both passed to the swahabas by the prophet.
  • However, there are some features and distinct characteristics that differentiate between Hadith Qudsi and Hadith Nabawi.
  • These are as follows:

     Hadith Qudsi  Hadith Nabawi
     A hadith communicated by Allah to the Prophet (SAW) through revelation and the Prophet communicates to his people in his own words.  Reports from the Swahabas about the Prophet’s statements, deeds, or approvals
     Meaning is from Allah but the words are from the prophet.  Both meaning and wording are from the Prophet.
     Most of them make direct reference to Allah  The subject matter is addressed directly.
     The teachings from Hadith Qudsi deal mostly with spiritual and ethical subjects.  Its teachings encompasses all aspects of life
     They are few in number  They are numerous in number
     They begin with the statement, “the hrophet (PBUH) says that Allah (SWT) says...”  They begin with the statement, “The Prophet (PBUH) said...” or “I heard the Mesenger of Allah say...” or “ I saw the messenger of Allah doing...”

Diferrence between Hadith Qudsi and the Holy Qur’an

 The Holy Qur’an  Hadith Qudsi
 Allah words that is, both its words and meaning are from Allah  Its words are from the Prophet (PBUH). The sayings of the Prophet through the medium of divine inspiration
 It is mu’jizah (inimitable, miraculous and unique)  A statement that the Messenger (PBUH) reports and he refers it directly to Allah (SWT)
 It is recited in every prayer  Only used as reference or for guidance but should not be recited in prayers.
 One is not allowed to touch the Qur’an when is in the state of impurity  One is not prohibited for touching the books of Hadith Qudsi.
 Must be recited in every Salat for the Salat to be valid.  Hadith Qudsi cannot be recited in Salat
 Was revealed through Angel Jibril to the Prophet (PBUH)  May have been inspired by other ways such as in the form of a dream.
 All the surahs and ayahs were collected and compiled during the Caliphate of Abubakar  Was not compiled into a book form until generations after the death of the Prophet and the Sahabah


a) Test to Determine the Authenticity of Hadith

  • Islam has a methodology of determining the authenticity of hadith.
  • There are several tests used to identify a genuine from mistaken or fabricated hadith.
  • In Form Two, we studied the components of Hadith.
  • We mentioned that there are two components of Hadith, namely; Matn and Sanad.
  • In this chapter we are going to study in details the test to determine the authenticity of a Matn and Sanad.

i. Test for Sanad

  • The following criteria are used to test the authenticity of Sanad of a Hadith;
    • The narrator must be a pious and practicing Muslim of sound Aqeeda.
    • The Hadith must be traceable to the Prophet.
    • The biographies of the narrators must be well documented.
    • The narrators should be reliable, trustworthy and of excellent moral character.
    • The reporters should have excellent and retentive memory.
    • The narrator should narrate what he exactly heard from the Prophet or saw the prophet do.

ii. Test for Matn

  • The following criteria are used to test the authenticity of Matn of a Hadith;
    • The Hadith should not go against the teachings of the Holy Qur’an or the commandments of Allah (SWT).
    • The Hadith should not go against any established Sunnah or tradition of the Prophet (PBUH).
    • The hadith should be consistent e.g it should not promise small rewards for big deeds.
    • It should not go against the foundations of Islam like Tawheed or acts of devotion.
    • It should not speak ill or defame any member of the Prophet’s family.
    • The Hadith should not contain minute details or specific dates for future events.
    • A Hadith that contradicts basic commonsense will not be accepted.
    • The hadith must be quoted in Arabic language.
    • The hadith should not directly benefit the narrator, an individual or clan.
    • It should not contradict any other universally accepted Hadith.

b) Simple Classification of Hadith.

  • You might have come across situations where items are sorted out to determine the genuine ones from those that are bogus.
  • How do the sorters identify this?
  • Definitely, they must have a method that enables them to perform such challenging work.
  • One of the ways is by categorizing, grading, sorting or grouping items according to their qualities and characteristics.
  • This is called classification.
  • The following are three of the simple classification of Hadith:

i) Hadith Sahih

  • The word Sahih is an Arabic term which means ‘sound’.
  • This class of Hadith is the most authentic and indisputable.
  • They are faultless hadith, in which there is no weakness either in regard to the chain of transmission (Isnad) or in regard to the text (Matn), and in which there is no contradiction of any kind of any of the established beliefs of Islam.
  • Sahih Hadith has the following characteristic:
    • It was reported by a reliable and trustworthy narrator.
    •  The narrator is of perfect integrity
    • The reporter is known to be truthful in his narrating.
    • It has a continous chain of narrators.
    • The narrator should understand what he narrates e.g one should know how a different expression can alter meaning.
    • The narrator has sound memory.
    • Reporter should be able to report the wording of Hadith accurately and not the meaning alone.
  • There are five classifications of Hadith Sahih, namely,
    • Mutawatir
    • Mash’hur
    • Marfu’
    • Muttafaq
    • Muttasil.

ii) Hassan

  • The term ‘Hassan’ is an Arabic word which means ‘good’or ‘fair’.
  • This class of Hadith is one where its source is well known and its reporters are clear only that they may have slight defects on Sanad i.e Some of its narrators might have weaker or defective memory as compared to the narrator of Sahih hadith.
  • Its Isnad is free from any narrators who may have been accused of misconduct.
  • Hassan hadith are reliable for legal decisions although they are inferior to the Sahih Hadith.

iii) Dhaif

  • Dhaif is an Arabic term which means ‘weak’.
  • A dhaif Hadith is one which its authenticity is disputed.
  • Usually, the weakness is due to discontinuity in the isnad or some defects in the matn (text) or in the sanad (chain of transmitters).
  • This category of Hadith is one that fails to reach the rank of ‘Hassan’.
  • Such a Hadith has the following characteristics:
    • It has a discontinuity in its chain of narration (isnad). The nature of discontinuity could be hanging, broken or hurriedly written.
    • One of the narrators has questionable character surrounding him e.g he or she may have been involved in telling lies, making excessive mistakes or involved ininnovation.

Sunni and Shia Collection of Hadith

  • Collections refer to the titles of Hadith books compiled by various scholars of Hadith among the Sunni and the Shia.
  • Both the Shia and Sunni have their dependent and reliable scholars of Hadith who also compiled various collections of Hadith in book form.
  • In this chapter, we shall discuss the Sunni and Shia collections of Hadith.

a) Sahihul-Sitta (the six sunni collection of Hadith)

  • The six Sunni collection of Hadith are referred to as Sahihul Sitta which translates to “The Authentic Six”.
  • Sometimes the collection is referred to as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (the six books).
  • They are the collections by the Sunni Muslim scholars of Hadith.
  • All these Hadiths are attributed to the Prophet (PBUH).
  • The books are identified as follows:
    • Sahih Bukhari
    • Sahih Muslim
    • Sunan Ibn Majah
    • Sunan Abu Daud
    • Sunan Nasai
    • Jamii Tirmidhi.

Brief survey of the compilers of Sunni Hadith

  • These important Sunni books of Hadith were compiled by renowed Muslim scholars of Hadith.
  • We shall now look at a brief biography of each of these compilers of the Sahihul Sitta and the method he used in the compilation of his book.

i) Imam Bukhari

  • His full name is Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim Ibn Mughira Ibn Al Bardezbah al-Bukhari al-Jufi.
  • He was born in 194 A.H. in the city of Bukhara.
  • It is from the name of this city that he got the name Bukhari.
  • His father, Ismail died when Bukhari was quite young.
  • He memorised the whole Quran while at the age six.
  • He used to research the history and biography of the narrators in order to help him in memorise hadith.
  • At the age of sixteen, he went for Hajj with his mother and father and thereafter stayed in Makkah and Madina.
  • This became his first step in the seeking of knowledge away from his home environment.
  • He then started writing his books such as Tarikh al-Kabeer, a Biography of the narrators of hadith.
  • He visited Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Iraq and Turkey in search for knowledge.
  • Among his books include; Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Al-Tarikh, Al- Tarikh al-Kabeer, Asami al-Sahaba, Al-Musnad al-Kabeer and Sahih Bukhari.
  • During the compilation of his book Sahih Bukhari, he employed a certain methodology.
  • We shall now look at the features of this book:
    • It includes only those Hadiths that are authentic.
    • It contains about 7,275 Hadith.
    • The book is divided into chapters dealing with specific topics.
    • Most of the titles of the chapters are named according to Bukhari’s opinion. For example the “Book of Salat contains a title on the obligation of takbeeratu al-ihram.
    • The book refers to or quotes previously written Hadith that is related to another title or narratedby two different swahabas.

ii) Imam Muslim

  • His full name is Abul Hussein Muslim bin Hajjaj al Nishapur.
  • He was an Arab of the Qushair clan.
  • Imam Muslim was born in 202 A.H. in Nishapur.
  • His family had a good religious background which greatly influenced his character.
  • He developed high interest in the study of hadith while at the age of 14.
  • He travelled to different places in search for knowledge and to collect Hadith.
  • Among the places he travelled to include Arabia, Egypt, Iraq and Syria.
  • He collected 300,000hadith but he included only 4000 in his book which he considered as authentic.
  • He was also a student of Imam Bukhari.
  • Among the scholars whom he received instructions from include, Imam Bukhari, and Mohamed bin Yahya al Dhuli who greatly influenced him to study Hadith.
  • He had many students such as Abu Issa Al Tirmidh,ibn Khuzaima, and Abu Amru al Mustamali among others.
  • He wrote several books which include; Al musnadul kabir, Tabaqatu Tabiin, Kitab al Wijdan and his famous book Sahih Muslim among others.
  • Sahih Muslim is considered as the second in authority to Sahih Muslim.
  • He died in 261 A.H. at the age of 57.

iii) Imam Ibn Majah

  • Ibn Majah also known as Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ar-Rub`ai was born in Qazween, a famous city of Iran in 209 A.H.
  • Not much is known about the days of his early life but he lived in the city of Qazween which was at that time a center of knowledge and civilization.
  • The city had several jurists and scholars and full of scientific activities which influenced him greatly in search of knowledge.
  • Imam ibn Majah memorised the Holy Qur'an and sought knowledge of hadith from various Hadith scholars in Qazween.
  • At the age of 22 he set out to various centres of learning in pursuit of knowledge and also to collect hadith from scholars.
  • He travelled to Khurasan, Basra, Kufah, Baghdad, Damascus, Makkah, Madinah, and Egypt.
  • Some of the highly knowledgeable scholars who taught him include among others, Ibrahim ibn Al- Mundhir, Al-Halawani Abu Muhammad Hassan, Az-Zubair ibn Bitar, Ya`qoub ibn Hamid, Isma`il ibn Mousa, Harmalah ibn Yahya, and Zuhair ibn Harb.
  • After 15 years of his journey Imam ibn Majah returned to Qazween where he spent most of his time writing, classifying, and narrating hadiths.
  • At that time, he became famous and knowledge seekers from far places travelled all the way to Qazween to learn from him.
  • He was an excellent, reliable and had reputable personality.
  • He is reckoned as one of the greatest imams and scholars of Hadith.
  • He left for the Muslim Umma valuable books and compilations such as Tafseer (interpretation) of the Qur'an, Al-Tarikh, and a book on history that continued to exist for a long time after his death.
  • His only surviving book is Sunan ibn Majahwhich is included among the authentic books of Sunnah.
  • It is ranked together with the three well known books of Abu aawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i.
  • Ibn Majah died on 22nd of Ramadan 273 A.H. at Qazween during the reign of the caliphate of Al- Mu`tamid billah.

iv) Imam Abu Daud

  • His full name is Abu aaud Suleiman bin Al Aash’ath.
  • He was born in 202 A.H in Sijistan near Qandar(the present Afghanistan).
  • He is one of the Muslim scholars who travelled widely in search of Hadith.
  • He visited places like Damascus, Egypt, Basra, Syria, Nishapur, Arabia and Khurasan.
  • Even though the Imam’s main area of study was in fiqh (Islamic law) he had a lot of interest in Hadith.
  • He began the learning of hadith while he was less than 20 years old.
  • He collected many Hadith and compiled them in his book called Sunnan Abu Daud which contained only the authentic Hadith.
  • He earned a lot of respect and gained a wide reputation in his lifetime.
  • Several other scholars praised him for his great ability, trustworthiness and accuracy.
  • Apart from his great talent as a narrator, he was also a good lawyer.
  • He died in 275 A.H.

v) Imam Nasai

  • Sunan an-Nasa'i is a collection of hadith containing about 5700 Hadith compiled by Imam Abu Abdur-Rahman Ahmad bin Shu'aib bin Bahr An-Nasai.
  • He was born in 214 AH in the town of Nasa’i in the Persian province of Khorasan.
  • He learnt hadith from his teachers in his own home town before travelling to Khorasan, Iraq, Hijaz, Syria and Egypt to collect and study more on Hadith.
  • He studied from many teachers.
  • Among them are; Muhaddith Qutaibah ibn Sa’id al Balkhi, Ishaq ibn Rahawaih, Muhammad ibn Nasr, Muhammad ibn Bishr and Imam Abu Dawud.
  • He settled and established his center for teaching and studies in Egypt.
  • He spent most of his days and nights in prayers and collection of Hadith.
  • He was very particular of the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).
  • His students came from all over the Muslim world.
  • They include Abul Qasim at-Tabrani, Ali ibn Jafar at-Tahawi, Muhammad ibn Mu’awiyah al Andalusi and Abu Jafar at-Tahani.
  • Imam an-Nasa’i travelled to Damascus, Syria in 302 A.H. where he noticed people displaying hostility towards Ali bin Abu Talib (RA).
  • He therefore wrote a book known as "Khasais Ali" to honor the character of Ali (RA) and started giving lectures in the mosque.
  • When the Umayyad rulers learnt about this, they asked him to also compile all Hadith that were in favor of Muawwiya.
  • Al- Nasa'i rejected their request by saying that there were no Hadith or sayings of the Prophet in favor of Muawwiya.
  • The Khawarij then beat Al-Nasa'i and left him with severe injuries.
  • In this state he requested to be taken back to Makkah.
  • The Imam passed away after reaching Makkah 303 A.H.

vi) Imam al Tirmidhi

  • Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma'mun al- Rashid.
  • He grew up in a learning environment and dedicated his life to the study of Hadith.
  • He obtained his basic Islamic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search for further knowledge.
  • He studied Hadith under instruction of great Muslim Scholars such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud.
  • Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory and would not forget what he had read or heard.
  • Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world.
  • The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah.
  • Imam Timidhi died at the age of 70 in the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag.
  • Imam Tirmidhi combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa'i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators.
  • The following are the special characteristics of al-Jamii Tirmidhi
    • Very few Hadith have been repeated i.e. about 8.
    • Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the title.
    • After mentioning a hadith he classifies its narration as authentic, good or weak.
    • He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrator’s nickname was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.
    • He explains the different madh’hab together with their proofs.
    • He gives an explanation to all difficult hadith.

b) Shia collection of Hadith

  • The shias have seven books of Hadith collected and compiled by Shia scholars of Hadith.
  • However, there are four major books which they rely on for reference.
  • These books are known as Al Kutub al Arba’ (the four major collections).
  • They include the following:
    • Kitab Al Kafi (the compendium)–collected and compiled by Muhammad ibnea’kub al Kulayni al Razi. It contains about 16,099 Hadith.
    • Man la Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih (for him not in the presence of jurisprudence) -collected and compiled by Muhammad ibn Babuya. This book contains 9,044 Hadith.
    • Tahdhib al Ahkam (rectification of the statutes) by Abu Jaafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan at Tusi It contains 13,590 Hadith.
    • Al Istibsar fi ma ukhtulif fihi minal akhbar (reflection upon the disputed traditions) by Abu Jaafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan at Tusi. The book is divided into four parts and contains 5,511 Hadith.

Three later books of Shia

  • Bihar ul Anwar – (“Oceans”of light) by Mulla Muhammad Baqir Majlisi
  • Al Wafi by Muhammad bin Murtaza
  • WasailuShia (details for Shia) by Muhammad bin Hassan Al Hurcontains 5,511 Hadith.

 

Study of Selected Hadith

a) Talabulilm (Seeking Knowledge)

  • Islam is a religion that lays great emphasis on seeking knowledge.
  • This is evident in the revelation of the first verses of Surah al Alaq which Allah insists that it is obligatory for humankind to seek knowledge. Allah (SWT) says, “Read in the name of Allah who created.” [Q 96: 1]
  • The prophet (PBUH) taught his companions and the Muslim Ummah the need to seek knowledge because of the following among others:
    • Knowledge enables believers to understand Allah (SWT) better.
    • It enlightens an individual thus promoting the performance of righteous deeds.
    • Allah (SWT) rewards those who have knowledge and use it well.
    • Acquisition of knowledge and skills enhances employment thus strengthening the economy of the society.
    • Knowledge boosts an individual’s confidence thus promoting self esteem.
    • Acquisition of religious knowledge helps a person perform the acts of Ibada correctly.
    • It instills in a person the sense of struggling in order to improve his status and acquire more knowledge hence promoting virtues such as endurance, humility, perserverance.

The following are examples of Hadith emphasing seeking knowledge:

  • Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), said: “The seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon every muslim man and woman.” (At-Tirmidhy)
  • Abu Huraira said: The messenger of Allah may Allah be pleased with him said: “The word of wisdom is the lost property of the believer, so wherever he finds it he has a right to it.”
  • Anasbin Malik (RA) relates that the messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: “He who goes out seeking knowledge will be in the path of God till he comes back.” ((At-Tirmidhy)
  • Abu Huraira (RA) narrates that the Prophet (PBUH) said: “When a person dies,his action ceases except for the three things:an act of charity that continues, knowledge from which benefits can be drawn, or a virtuous who prays for him(he will be credited for these things).” (Muslim)
  • Abu Omama (RA) relates that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said : “A learned person is superior to a worshiper as I am superior to the commonest among you. Then,he added- Allah (SWT) and His angels,the inhabitants of heavens and earth,even an ant in its hole and fish send blessings to those who teach people virtue.” (Al Tirmidhi).

b) An Niyyah (Intention)

  • Niyyah or intention refers to that element that gives importance to a person’s action.
  • A Muslim should make An Niyaah (intention) before performing any good deed.
  • Intention is the pillar of worship.
  • The Niyyah should be pure, sincere and done for the sake of Allah (SWT).
  • Good acts gain value and rewards from Allah (SWT) on account of the purely good intentions.
  • Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught his companions the need for having intention in every action.

The following are some of the Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) on intention:

  • Umar bin Khattab (R.A.) relates having heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying, “Actions are judged by intentions, and every person shall have but what he intends. He whose hijra (migration) is intended to (please) Allah and His Messenger will have his migration (reckoned as being) to Allah and His Messenger and he whose migration is for (some worldly object) to obtain or for a woman to marry, his migration will be for what he migrated for. (Al Bukhari and Muslim)
  • Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A.) relates, “We were with the prophet (PBUH) in a campaign and he said to us, ‘In Madina there are people whom we left behind, but who are with you in every march you make and every valley you cross; they have been detained by sickness.’” (Muslim)
  • Abu Musa Al Ash’ari (RA) relates that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asked about a man fighting to display his courage, a man fighting out of vehemence, and a man fighting to show off; whom one of the three will be fighting in the way of Allah? The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “He who fights to bring Allah’s word above all others will be fighting in the way of Allah.” (Al Bukhari and Muslim)
  • Abu Bakra Al Thaqafi (R.A.) said that the prophet (PBUH) said,
    If two Muslims confront each other with their swords, both the killer and the killed will reside in hell.” I asked him, “This is understandable for the killer; but what about the killed?” He said, “He was full of the intention to kill the other one.” (Al Bukhari and Muslim)

c) Tawakkul (reliance on Allah (SWT))

  • Tawakkul means putting one’s trust in Allah (SWT).
  • Any believer should put his trust in the hands of Allah (SWT) for care and protection.
  • Allah (SWT) says: “... and if anyone puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah), for Allah will surely accomplish his purpose.”[Q 61:3]
  • Although a Muslim is supposed to rely on Allah (SWT), Tawakkul should not make us to be irresponsible and lazy.
  • One should make necessary preparations and efforts and play his/her role fully and then rest his trust in Allah (SWT).

Instances where believers require Tawakkul

  • Tawakkul in our life. There are several instances in this world where a believer is encountered with so many challenges. The challenges may include; death of a beloved one, loss of a job, sickness, failure in examinations among others. A believer is supposed to put his trust in Allah (SWT) during such times of agony. He should do this by seeking assistance and help from the Creator of the Universe and avoid any acts they may result in Kufr (disbelief). He or she should not resort to any acts of shirk (polytheism) to find solutions.
  • Ali (RA) narrated that, ‘I have seen the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) taking silk in his right hand and gold in his left hand and saying, “These two are prohibited for the males of my Umma (followers/community’).” (Abu aawud with a good chain of reporters)
  • Tawakkul on sustenance. A believer should not bow to human beings and belittle oneself to believe that these people can provide them with sustenance.
    Allah (SWT) says, “Who is God fearing, Allah shall appoint (for him) a way out for him. And Allah will provide for him (a quarter) whence he has no expectation.” [Q 65:2-3]

    In a Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH), Umar (RA) relates having heard the Messenger of Allah saying: “If you put trust in Allah in the true sense, Allah shall grant you sustenance as He provides sustenance for the birds. They leave their nests in the morning hungry with empty stomachs and return at the end of the day with filled stomachs.” (At-Tirmidhy)

    Ali (RA) narrated that, ‘I have seen the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) taking silk in his right hand and gold in his left hand and saying, “These two are prohibited for the males of my Umma (followers/community’).” (Abu aawud with a good chain of reporters)
  • Tawakkul as a sign of Iman (faith). One of the characteristics of a believer is to put trust in Allah (SWT) for whatever one does. It is only Allah who protects, provides and sustains all the creatures. Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an:
    So you put your trust in Allah, if you are indeed believers.” [Q5:23]
    When you have firmly resolved (on something), then put trust in Allah (for its completion), for Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).” [Q 3:159]
    And trust you in the Living One who does not die and celebrate His praises.” [Q 25:58]

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