Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE Prediction Papers 2022

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Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper contains three sections
  • Answer all question in section A and B
  • In section C answer any two questions



  1. Name two physical agents of weathering (1 marks)
  2. Outline three methods of breaking seed dormancy (1 ½ marks)
  3. List two signs shown by crops when they are attacked by nematodes (1 marks)
  4. Distinguish between soil structure and soil texture (2 marks)
  5. State any three examples of working capital (1 ½ marks)
    1. What is Land reform: (1 mark)
    2. State any four methods of land reform (2 marks)
  7. Mention four ways in which losses may be incurred during hay making. (2marks
  8. Give two precautions taken to ensure good crop establishment during planting. (1mark)
    1. Define inventory records. (1mark)
    2. State four pieces of information that is contained in health records. (2marks)
    1. List four problems associated with nomadic pastoralism in Kenya. (2marks)
    2. Name four factors of production in agriculture. (2marks)
  11. List two farming practices that can be carried out to increase the amount of light harnessed by crops. (2marks)
  12. State four reasons why land is prepared before planting (2marks)
  13. Give one reason in each case why the following tertiary operations are important. (3marks)
    1. Ridging
    2. Rolling
    3. Leveling
  14. Distinguish the following terms as used in pasture management. (2marks)
    1. Intensity of defoliation
    2. Frequency of defoliation
  15. What does the term ‘close season’ in crop production mean? (1mark)

Answer all questions

  1. Use the following crops to answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the crops labelled D and E above. (2mark)
    2. Why is crop D rarely destroyed by pests in the stores? (1mark)
    3. Name any two diseases that affect crop E. (2marks)
  2. The diagram F, below illustrates a method of training in crops.
    1. Identify the method shown in F above. (1mark)
    2. Name two other methods used in training in crop production. (1mark)
    3. State two advantages of training in crop production. (2mark)
    4. List two crops that require training. (1mark)
    1. Describe the procedure which should be followed in spraying a crop of tomatoes using a fungicide in powder form, water and knapsack sprayer. (3 marks)
    2. State two safety precautions while spraying the crop with fungicide (2 marks)
  4. The diagram below illustrate an experiment on soil
    1. State the aim of the experiment (1 mark)
    2. If the volume of water illustrated in the measuring cylinder was observed after one hour.
      Identify the soil sample A and B (2 marks)
    3. State two ways in which the soil structure of sample c can be improved. (2 marks)

Answer only two questions

    1. Giving one example in each case, identify three classes of crop diseases. (6marks)
    2. Describe the physical measures of disease control in crops. (10marks)
    3. Identify the factors affecting the efficiency of pesticides (4marks)
  2. Describe the production of tomatoes (Lycoperiscon esculentum) under the following subheadings.
    1. Ecological requirements (4marks)
    2. Nursery establishment (4marks)
    3. Transplanting (4marks)
    4. Seed bed preparation (4marks)
    5. Field management practices (4marks)
    1. State and explain five agricultural services available to farmers. (10marks)
    2. Explain the ways in which labour efficiency can be increased in the farm (5marks)
    3. State any five measures which are taken to minimize water pollution In the farm. (5marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Physical agents of weathering
    • Wind, Temperature
    • Moving water/rainfall
    • Moving ice/glacier 
  2. Methods of breaking seed dormancy
    • Hot water treatment
    • Scarification/filing/nicking
    • Partial burning
    • Soaking in water
    • Chemical method/use of concentrated sulphuric acid/ potassium nitrate.
  3. Signs of nematode attack on crops
    • Stunted growth, Wilting
    • Discolouration of foliage
    • Gal formation/root knots 
  4. Soil structure is the physical arrangement of soil particles and how they adhere to each other to form an aggregate where as soil texture is the relative proportion of various sizes of mineral particles in the soil 
  5. Examples of working capital
    • Fertilizer, Seeds, Fuel
    • Pesticides/herbicides 
    1. Land reform: - specific integrated action/programme to bring about more effective control and use of land/ an organized action taken to improve the structure of land tenure and land use. 
    2. Methods of land reform
      • Land tenancy/land ownership reforms
      • Land consolidation
      • land adjudication and registration
      • settlement &Resettlement 
  7. ways in which losses may be incurred during hay making 4 x ½ = 2 marks
    • When slow drying of hay is practiced
    • When there’s prolonged exposure of hay to sunlight /bleaching
    • Respiration/oxidation
    • When hay is rained on/rotting
    • Breakages and loss of leaves 
  8. Precaution taken to ensure good crop establishment during planting
    • Use of certified seeds
    • Proper depth of planting
    • Recommended tilth
    • Timely planting 
    1. Inventory is a record which show all the assets and liabilities of a business. 
    2. Information that contain in health record
      • Date, Disease symptom , Animal (s) affected , Drugs used , Cost of treatment given, Remarks 
    1. List four problems associated with nomadic pastoralism in Kenya. (2mks)
      • Livestock parasites and diseases due to communal watering points, grazing and spraying points.
      • Tendency of increased soil erosion and land degradation.
      • Difficult to control breeding and breeding diseases.
      • Low production of both meat and milk and hides and skins due to energy losses.
      • Conflict and ethnic tension among the Nomadic communities for control of good pastures and water.
    2. four factor of production
      • Land, Labour, Capital
      • Management ( Entrepreneurship) 
  11. farming practice carried to increase amount of light harnessed by crop
    • Prunning, Thinning, Weeding, Wider spacing 
    • Importance of land preparation
    • To enable water to infiltrate and assist in the conservation of moisture in the soil
    • To kill weeds
    • To improve soil aeration
    • To incorporate organic matter into the soil and encourage decomposition
    • It brings nutrients present in the subsoil to the surface
    • To destroy pests and disease agents
    • It loosens the soil for easy germination and root development
    1. Reasons for ridging
      • Soil conservation on sloppy land
      • Planting of root crops
      • Opening furrow e.g. for irrigation or planting crops like sugar cane
    2. Rolling:
      • Done to improve contact between the seed and soil
      • Helps to compact the soil hence reduces soil erosion
    3. Leveling:
      • Helps to make seedbed uniform/ allows uniform depths at planting 
    1. Intensity of defoliation: Proportion of herbage removed through grazing and that of residual forage
    2. Frequency of defoliation: How often forage stand is grazed / cut for feed
  15. close season is A period during which a particular crop is not supposed to be grown on a given area so as to control diseases and pests build up.
    • Name the crops labelled D and E above. (2mark)
      • D-Finger millet.
      • E-Bulrush millet.
    • Why is crop D rarely destroyed by pests in the stores? (1mark)
      • Because of their small size.
    • Name any two diseases that affect crop E. (2marks)
      • Downy mildew, Rus, Ergot
      1. Trelishing method 
      2.   Staking, Propping 
      3. advantages of training crop
        • Production of clean fruits
        • Facilitates spraying and harvesting of the crops
        • Controls incidences of disease out break
        • Prevents infestation by soil – borne pests 
      4. crop require training
        • Passion fruits, Tomatoes , Garden peas , Some bean varieties , Bananas 
    1. procedure followed in spraying crop
      • Read the label/manufacturer’s instructions
      • Measure the required amount of fungicide
      • Place it in a container and mix thoroughly with water
      • Pour the mixture into knapsack sprayer through a sieve
      • Spray the mixture onto the crop. mark as a procedure 
    2. safety measure when spraying crop 2marks
      • Spray following direction of wind
      • Wear protective clothing’
      • Avoid eating or smoking while handling fungicide
      • Avoid spillage of fungicide
      • Do not suck/blow blocked nozzle
    1. aim of experiment.
      • Compare porosity /drainage /water holding capacity of different soil. (1mark)
      • Sandy soil (A) (1mark)
      • Loam soil (B) (1mark)
    3. ways soil can improved
      • adding organic matter/manure (2marks)
      • Liming
      • Sub-soiling
      • Draining away excess water
    1. example and classes crop diseases
      • Bacterial✔ diseases e.g. Halo bligh✔t, Fusarium with, black arm.
      • Fungal✔ diseases – e.g. Smuts(maize✔ smuts) blasts e.g rice blasts rusts(wheat rust)blight, coffee Berry diseases, panama disease.
      • Viral diseases e.g. Mosaic disease✔, Rosette disease, maize streak virus, Ratoon stunting, citrus Tristeza Greening diseases.
      • Nutritional ✔disorders- Disorders as a result✔ of lack of one of more of the necessary plant nutrients 
    2. physical measures of disease control in crop
      • Use lethal temperatures ✔– Hot water can be used to treat seeds against pests such as bollworms of cotton.
      • Drying of seeds – Complete drying of grains make them difficult for pests to penetrate them✔Suffocation ✔– Commonly used in Cyprus bins for control of storage pests e.g
      • Maize weevils, rats etc. ✔
      • Trapping and killing- Pests such as rats, birds, cutworms etc can be trapped and killed. ✔
      • Irrigation –Flooding helps to kill soil borne pests e.g. termites, army worms,moles, overhead irrigation can wash off pests e.g. aphids , mites etc✔
      • Radiation – Low doses of x– rays / gamma rays can be used to control pests e.g. weevils, moths etc.
      • Use of scarecrows✔-These can be erected at specific spots to scare away birds, wild animals etc from the farm. ✔ stating 1 mark, explanation 1mark 
    3. factor affecting the efficiency of pestcides
      • Concentration
      • Timing of application
      • Weather condition at the time of application
      • Persistence 
    1. Ecological Requirements:
      • rainfall – 760mm – 1300mm p.a, well distributed
      • Low rainfall requires surface irrigation to be done
      • Altitude – 0-2100m a.s.l
      • Temperature - 18°c - 29°c
      • Soil- deep well drained fertile soils
      • Soil ph = 6.0- 6.5 
    2. Nursery establishment
      • Clear the vegetation
      • Dig deeply to achieve a fine tilth
      • Raise the soil slightly above the ground
      • Make drills and sow the seeds
      • Cover the seeds with a thin layer of the soil
      • Erect a shade 
    3. Transplanting
      • Done early in the morning or late in the evening
      • Dig holes 15cm deep
      • Spacing 90cm x 60cm or 100cm x 50cm
      • Put a handful of manure or a teaspoonful of D.S.P fertilizer per hole
      • Mix them well with the soil
      • Place each seedling in the hole, cover and firm the soil around it
      • Mulch and shade it
      • Water 
    4. Preparation of main seedbed
      • Done early during dry season
      • Plough deeply
      • Remove all weeds
      • Harrow the land to medium tilth 
    5. Field management practices
      • Top dress with C.A.N two times at 25cm height (100kg/ ha) and during fruiting (200kg/ ha)
      • Field should be weed free
      • Irrigation recommended where rainfall is inadequate
      • Stacking, Pruning, Mulching, Pest control , Disease control 
    1. agricultural services available to farmer
      • Training and extension services – Informed education given to the farmers through the field extension officers at divisional levels and chiefs Barazas by the government and other non-government organisation. ✔ ✔
      • Banking services-This includes savings and credit schemes, loans etc. farmers can have savings or current a/c. The banks also offer advisory services on credit facilities and investments ✔ ✔
      • Credits services (loans)– Farmers can borrow working capital and pay it with interest. Farmers may offer security items as collecteral against the credit. ✔ ✔
      • Artificial Insemination AI- These can be offered by the government and other private organization. his enables farmers to breed high quality livestock ✔ ✔
      • Agricultural research. his is scientific research leading to new and better production techniques in crop and livestock production. The research which is done by the gut and other organisation is passed to farmers through the extension services system ✔ ✔
      • Marketing- The farmers are facilitated to move their goods and services from their points of production to consumption organization such as K.C.C, K.T.D.A, K.P.C.U, help farmers to market their farm produce ✔ ✔
      • Veterinary services –They are services that help farmers to keep healthy animals through control and treatment of parasites, and diseases (1mk for stating, 1mk correct explanation) max 5 points 
    2. ways in which labour efficiency can be increased in farm
      • Provision of good & competitive salaries to employees.
      • Educating and training the labourers
      • Provision of proper tools & equipment to the labour force.
      • Provision of god working conditions e.g. healthy environment & proper protective clothing.
      • Providing incentives to the workers
      • Proper supervision of farm labour
      • Mechanisation of farm operations
      • Assignment of specific duties to the farm workers.
      • Giving reasonable lengths of working period
      • Promoting individual qualities of farm workers
      • Promoting good human relation between management and farm workers
    3. State any five measures which are taken to minimize water pollution in the farm. (5marks)
      • Fencing off water sources to keep off pollutants
      • Application of soil conservation measures to control soil erosion
      • Avoid watering animals directly from water sources
      • Good disposal of efficient from processing factories
      • River banks should be vegetated by planting grass to minimize siltation in rivers.
      • Employing adequate storm water control methods and disposal systems especially in areas with heavy rains.

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