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  1. List down one disadvantage of Electronic sources of information of History and Government (1mk)
  1. Identify the main difference between humans and other primates (1mk)
  2. Name the form of early picture writing invented in Egypt (1mk)
  3. State two characteristics of Regional trade (2mks)
  4. List down two negative impact of tele-communication (2mks)
  5. State two factors that enhanced the spread of iron-working in Africa (2mks)
  6. Identify two natural factors for the growth Meroe as an early urban centre (2mks)
  7. List down two symbols of unity among the Asante kingdom (2mks)
  8. Identify the main reason for the convening of Berlin conference 1884-1885 (1mk)
  9. State one reason why British used Direct rule in Zimbabwe (1mk)
  10. Name one method used by nationalists in South Africa during the struggle for independence(1mk)
  1. Identify the immediate cause of the second world war (1mk)
  2. State two reasons why united States of America delayed in joining the first world war(2mks)
  1. Identify the main function of the international court of Justice (1mk)
  2. Name the weapons of the cold war (2mks)
  3. List two founders of pan Africanism (2mks)
  4. State one failure of the organization of African unity (1mk)

Answer any THREE questions in the section.

    1. State three characteristics of regional trade (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons for the decline of Trans-Atlantic trade (12mks)
    1. Identify five reasons why Lewanika collaborated with the British (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the FRELIMO succeeded in the armed struggle against the Portuguese (10mks)
    1. State three demands put across by Austrian authorities to the Serbian government in relation to the Sarajevo assassinatio             (3mks)
    2. Explain five political effects of the Second World War (12mks)
    1. State five challenges facing the common wealth (5mks)
    2. Explain five objectives of the East African community in the 1967 treaty (10mks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section

    1. Statethree factors that contributed to the decline of the Buganda kingdom (3mks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Asante during the 19th century (12mks)
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Shona kingdom in the 19th century (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the policy of assimilation failed in Senegal (10mks)
    1. State three duties of Emirs in Northern Nigeria (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Ghana got independence earlier than other African countries (10mks)


  1. List down one disadvantage of electronic as a source of History and Government.(1mk)
    • It’s only used where there is electricity
    • Expensive to obtain
    • Requires experts
  1. The main difference between humans and other primates                         (1mk)
    High brain capacity /ability to think /reasons
  1. The picture writing invented in Egypt (1mk)
  1. Two characteristics of regional trade             (2mks)
    • Has a larger geographical region
    • Involves exchange of a large variety of goods
    • Traders acted as middlemen between the buyers of goods and producer
    • It has established markets days
  1. Negative impacts of telecommunication (2mks)
    • Mode of telecommunication, erodes moral values
    • Disposal of telecommunication gadgets may lead to environmental pollution
    • Continuous use of some means of telecommunications may lead to addiction.
  1. Two factors that enhanced the spread of iron working in Africa (2mks)
    • Migrations
    • Trade
    • Warfare
    • Intermarriages
  1. Natural factors for the growth of Meroe (2mks)
    Availability of forests / wood that was used for smelting
    Presence of iron ore deposit
  1. Two symbols of unity among the Asante kingdom (2mks)
    • Golden stool – Asantelene
    • Black stool – Omanhene
    • Odwiradfestival
    • The Asantehene
  1. Main reason for the convening of the Berlin conference of 1884-1885 (1mk)
    To peacefully divide Africa among the Europea-powers
  1. Reasons for use of direct rule in Zimbabwe             (1mk)
    • The British wanted direct control of mineral wealth so as to maximize profit
    • Existed large number of Europeans to be used in administration
    • Zimbabwe lacked well established traditional systems of government.
    • Past resistance by the people of Zimbabwe made British lose trust in African leaderships.
    • The BSACO provided finances to pay for administrative costs
  1. Methods used by Nationalists in South Africa in their struggle for independence.(1mk)
    • Hunger strikes
    • Strikes/boycotts/sit- in major cities
    • Formation of underground movements
    • Formation of political parties
    • Trade unions
    • Diplomacyeg use of U.N.O and O.A.U
    • Churches eg Anglican church
    • Use of media egPamphlets
  1. The immediate cause of 2nd world ware (1mk)
    Territorial violationse.g German invaded Poland and Belgium
  1. Reasons why U.S.A had remained neutral in first world war             (2mks)
    • The Monroe Doctrine of of Isolation of 1923
    • Many people of German descent in U.S.A and there was fear that if U.S.A declared war on Germany the war would shift to American soils.
    • S.A had commercial interest with the two countries therefore she did not want to take risk
    • The war had not interfered directly with U.S.A
  1. Main function of international court of Justice (1mk)
    Settling disputes over international borders.
  1. Weapons of cold war (2mks)
    • Economic sanctions
    • Propaganda
    • Military assistance to the enemy of opposite sides.
    • Financial /technical assistance
  1. Founders of Pan-Africanism (2mks)
    • Booker T. Washington
    • George Padmore
    • Marcus Garvey
    • E.B Bois
  1. One failure of organization of African unity (1mk)
    • Failed to deal with Congo crisis
    • It was silent to issues of democratic reforms leading to dictatorship
    • Failed to prevent the Rwanda genocide
    • Failed to achieve total peace and unity in Africa
    1. Three characteristics of regional trade (3mks)
      • Occurs on larger geographical region
      • Involves exchange of a large variety of goods.
      • Traders acts as middlemen
      • Has established market places
    2. Reasons for decline of Trans-Atlantic Trade (12mks)
      • Decline for demand of Sugar
      • Independence of USA. This deprived Britain her profits
      • Industrial revolution replaced human labour with machines
      • Christian missionaries condemned slave trade as being in human
      • There were several slave revolts
      • Contributions of Africans who campaigned against slave trade eg King Nzinga
      • The impact of French revolution which spread ideas of liberty
      • Development of legitimate trade which replaced slave trade
      • Role of the economist who argued free labor was better than forced labour
    1. Reasons for Lewanika collaboration with British
      • Needed protection from the internal enemies
      • He had been influenced by Khama of Ngwato to seek British assistances
      • He wanted to protect his kingdom against external invasion egNgoni
      • He desired western education and civilization of his people
      • Lewanika realized the futility of resisting against the British
      • He was encouraged by missionaries to seek British protection.
      • He wanted to safeguard his independence
      • He wanted to acquire material benefits
    2. Five reasons why the Frelimosucceeded in armed struggle against the Portuguese(10mks)
      • Frelimo had a large number of fighters
      • FRELIMO used guerilla tactics
      • Local people gave logistical support of where about of Portuguese army
      • Movement cultivated its own food
      • Frelimo got military support from African countries
      • Role of O.A.U (organization of African Unity) Unitedthe independent African countries against Portuguese.
      • Women mobilized the masses who astonished men to join war.
      • Frelimo tactic of attacking Portuguese at different points at the same time thus Portuguese fighting in different fronts.
      • Lisbon coup that was caused by officers who were anti-government encouraged the FRELIMO.
      • Ethnicity was overcome by free mingling of people
    1. Three demands by the Austrian-Authorities to the Serbian Government in relation to Sarajevo Assassination             (3mks)
      • Serbia should suppress all societies which were organizing anti-Austrian propaganda.
      • Serbia should dismiss all officials to whom Austrian objected.
      • Austrian police should be allowed to enter Serbia to ensure above demands were fulfilled.
      • Austria to be allowed to participate in the inquiry of the cause of the assassination
      • Serbia to explain the assassination of the archduke
      • Austria to apologize to Serbia
    2. Political effects of the Second World War (12mks)
      • The war led to the rise of two super powers, USA & USSR
      • Communist zone was extended to include nearly half the continent of Europe resulting into an “iron curtain” that geographically divided Europe.
      • Led to cold war, an ideological and economic struggle between the opposing blocks
      • With Eastern Europe dominated by former Soviet Union the weakened Western powers had to receive assistance from USA to prevent them from failing into communist hands.
      • UNO was founded in 1945 to promote peace, security and international co-operation.
      • Led to division of Germany into East & West Germany
      • Led to creation of state of Israel aimed at settling the Jews.
      • It catalyzed the movement towards decolonization. It intensified the struggle for independence in the colonies.
      • With introduction of Marshal’s plan, USA found herself getting more involved in European affairs.
      • The war led to the production of nuclear weapons. The world had to live under the threats of a nuclear war.
    1. Five challenges facing the commonwealth. (5mks)
      • Shortage of funds
      • National interests
      • Ideological differences
      • Membership to other organizations
      • Civil wars
      • Border disputes
      • Racial discrimination
      • Domination by developed countries
      • Colonial injustices
    2. Five objectives of the East African Community (10mks)
      • To promote trade among the three East African countries
      • Provide common services in areas eg railways, harbors
      • Provide for free trade of goods with use of a common currency
      • Provide wider & more secure market for goods produced
      • Facilitate free movement of people
      • Enhance& strengthen classes ties & understanding between members
      • Bring economic balance the states & equally share assets
      • Establish similar custom tariffs& duties to non-member states
      • Enhanceself-sufficiency, self-reliance and full independence from rest of world
      • Provide a forum where the three states would discuss issues concerning them
    1. Three factors that contributed to decline of Buganda (3mks)
      • Weak leader after death of KibakaMutesa.
      • There emerged religious conflicts between Christians, Muslims and traditionalists
      • Authority of Kabaka was undermined by the Christian court officials
      • After signing of Buganda agreement Buganda kingdom came under British rule
      • DaudiChwa, being an infant could not exert his authority as king, thus was assisted by Prime Minister, Apollo Kagwawho collaborated with British
    2. Social organization of Asante during C 19th
      • They were organized into two clans who spoke their own dialect of Akan
      • Believe in one supreme creator, Nyame.
      • Ancestors were taken as intermediaries between the divine and living
      • Religion and politics were inseparable
      • Golden stool was most important symbol of religious reverence in Kumasi and Asantehene
      • Asantehene, Omanhene and chiefs were all religious s leaders who conducted religious ceremonies within their respective area.
      • Each clan had its own stool (black stools) believed to have come from Nyame.
      • Creative arts was taken as an important part of their civilization as dancing, singing
    1. Five factors for the growth of the Shona Kingdom (5mks)
      • Farming
      • Trade
      • Able leadership
      • Strong Army
      • Availability of mineral resources
      • Religion
      • Acquisition of Arms
    2. Why assimilation policy failed in Senegal (10mks)
      • The policy was expensive, especially the costs of privileges it provided such as education.
      • There was problems of cultural differences between Africans and the French
      • African chiefs who had lost their authority over their subjects strongly opposed policy of assimilation.
      • French lacked adequate personnel to supervise the process
      • French feared that its application would result to the loss of labour on their farms
      • Politically the system threatened their status quo: French feared if Africans were elected to join French chambers of deputies they would outnumber the Frenchmen.
      • Disregard of African laws based on African culture & Islam caused a lot of African resentment
      • High standards expected by the French for one to be assimilated made the policy unworkable.
      • Fear by some Frenchmen that assimilated Africans could be their economic rivals.
      • French were unable to agree to destroy the French colonial empire, they began to agitate for abolition of the policy
      • The rise of African nationalism undermined the policy
    1. Three duties of Emirs (3mks)
      • Collected taxes
      • Recruited labor for public works
      • Headed local governments
      • Tried cases in the local customary courts
      • Maintained law & order
      • Appointed village heads
      • Communicated colonial policies to the people
      • Supervised construction of roads and markets
    2. Six reasons why Ghana attained independence earlier than other African countries (12mks)
      • There was rapid economic & social changes which were caused by cultivation of cocoa changes that affected cocoa farming after Second World War resulted into political change.
      • There was a large group of educated elites who were on the frontline calling for decolonization in Ghana
      • Nkurumah’s populist leadership provided the unity required for nationalism in Ghana
      • Nkurumah participated in the pan African Manchester conference whose countries resolved that all countries have a right to self-determination.
      • Ghana was a small country with good system of transport and communication. This made the movement of information faster and effective.
      • There was presence of few Europeans, this made the struggle for independence not to be bloody or have any complications.
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