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Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections, A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL questions in section A, three in section B and two from section C.


  1. Give the meaning of Anthropology. (1mk)
  2. Identify one archaeological site in Tanzania.  (1mk)
  3. Name twoinventions that promoted the development of Early Agriculture in Egypt.   (2mks)
  4. State two negative impacts of the Trans-Saharan trade.   (2mks)
  5. Give the meaning of telecommunication.(1mk)
  6. Identify two reasons why the industrial revolution intensified the Scramble for colonies in Africa.  (2mks)
  7. State the main reason for the growth of the ancient city of Meroe.   (1mk)
  8. Name two officials who assisted the Shona emperor to administer the Kingdom.  (2mks)
  9. Identify one African country that was colonized by Italy.        (1mk)
  10. Give one reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German colonial administration. (1mk)
  11. State two political benefits enjoyed by assimilated Africans in Senegal. (2mks)
  12. Give themain reason for the failure of the League of Nations in Preserving world peace. (1mk)
  13. State one function of the United Nations International court of Justice.   (1mk)
  14. State two social achievements of the common wealth.    (2mks)
  15. Give one function of ECOWAS council of ministers.   (1mk)
  16. Identify two political changes introduced by Mobutu SeseSeko which led to dictatorship in Democratic  Republic of Congo. (2mks)
  17. Give two qualifications for election to the council of states in India.(2mks)


    1. State three limitations of electronic sources of information on history and government.(3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why man lived in groups during the Stone Age  Period. (12mks)      
    1. Identify three disadvantages of the open field system of farming in Britain. (3mks)
    2.  Discuss six remedies that should be put in place by third world countries to prevent food shortage. (12mks)
    1. State three uses of canals. (3mks)
    2. Describe six factors that promoted industrialization in South Africa. (12mks)
    1. Give three social factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa. (3mks)
    2. Explain six characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe.  (12mks)


    1. Give five factors that led to the growth of Asante Kingdom.   (5mks)
    2. Discuss five functions of the Lukiiko among the Buganda Kingdom. (10mks)
    1. Identify five roles played by Kwame Nkrumah in the Liberation of Africa.(10mks)
    2. Explain five political challenges faced by Tanzania since independence. (10mks)
    1. Explain five roles of the state governments in U.S.A. (5mks)
    2.  Explain five factors that limit the supremacy of parliament in Britain. (5 marks)     


SECTION A (25 marks)

  1. The meaning of Anthropology.                                                                    (1 mark)
    The study of human beings, their origin, development, customs, beliefs and social relationships / way of life

  2. Archaeological site in Tanzania.                                                                   (2 marks)
    • Olduvai Gorge
    • Peninj
    • Leatoli
    • Garusi
    • Isimila / Eyasi
    • Nyabusora
    • Apis Rock
  3. Inventions that promoted the development of Agriculture plough in Egypt (2 MARKS)
    • Shadoof
    • Bronze hoes
    • ox – drawn plough.                                           
  4. Negative impacts of Trans-Saharan trade. (2 marks)
    • led to increased warfare in the region.
    • Intensified slave trade which created insecurity and misery.
    • Demand for Ivory led to destruction of wildlife.
  5. Meaning of telecommunication. (1 mark)
    • Technology of receiving and sending messages by television, telegraph etc / electronic media.
  6. Two reasons why the industrial revolution intensified the scramble for colonies in Africa.   (2 marks)
    • Colonies were perceived as sources of raw materials.
    • Colonies were seen as market for industrial goods.
    • Colonies were seen as regions of possible investment.
  7. Main reason for growth of ancient city of Meroe. (1 mark)
    • Abundant wood fuel for the smelting of iron.
  8. Two officials who assisted the Shona Emperor to administer the Kingdom.  (2 marks)
    • The head cook
    • Gate keeper / Chancellor
    • Court steward / Chamberlain / Chancellor
    • Queen mother
    • Head drummer
    • Head of the army
    • Senior son in law
    • King’s sister
    • Treasurers
    • 9 Principal wives of King
  9. One Africans Country that was colonized by Italy.             (1 mark)
    • Libya
    • Italian Somaliland
  10. One reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German Colonial administrators. (1 mark)
    • Akidas were foreigners
    • Akidas took African vacancies in administering their country.
    • Akidas were harsh / brutal / whipped Africans
  11. Two political benefits enjoyed by Assimilated Africans in Senegal. (2 marks)
    • They were allowed to send representatives in French chamber of deputies.
    • They were allowed to vote during elections 
    • Subjected to French judicial System
  12. Main reason for the failure of the League of nations to pressure world peace. (1 mark) 
    • Rearmament of Germany / Lack of military wing.
  13. One function of the United Nations International court of Justice. (1 mark)
    • Settling disputes over international borders
    •  Handling other international disputes
    • Handling cases of human rights violation and crimes against humanity.
  14. Two social achievements of the commonwealth.  (2 marks)
    •  Enabled members to share technological information to promote educational research.
    • Improved co-operation among members 
    • Cultural exchange
    • Engagement in games etc.
  15. One function of ECOWAS council of ministers. (1 mark)
    • The general management of the organization
    • Advising the authority of Head of State.
    • Giving direction to the subordinate organs.
  16. Two political changes introduced by Mobutu SeseSeko which led to dictatorship in Democratic Republic of Congo.  (2 marks)
    • He banned all the political parties except the people’s revolutionary movement which led
    • He amended the constitution stripping parliament its powers.
    • Abolished federal system / centralized powers around himself.
    • Civil servant were appointed by centralized powers around himself.
    • Declared himself a life president.
  17. Two qualifications for election to the council of states in Idia. (2 marks)
    • Indian citizen
    • One must be above the age of 30 years
    • One must be registered as a voter
    • One must be a resident of the state in which one is contesting.


    1. Three limitations of electronic sources of information on history and government. (3 marks)Can only be used in areas with electricity.
      • They are expensive to obtain and use.
      • They require experts.
      • They are subject to bias of the producer.
      • Contain unrealistic / exaggerated information inaccurate as they depict what appeals to the public (5x1= 5 marks)
    2. Six reasons why man lived in groups during Stone Age period. (12 marks)
      • To help each other in times of hardships.
      • To give moral support / encouragement to each other.
      • To share resources.
      • To share work / duties.
      • For companionship.
      • For security reasons. (6x2 = 12 marks)
    1. Three disadvantages of the open-field system of farming in Britain. (3 marks)
      •  Land was not fully utilized as land was left fallow.
      • Cart tracks and paths wasted land.
      • There was wastage of labour / time duet to ploughing fallow fields and leaving idle.
      • Discouraged livestock rearing due to spread of diseases on common grazing grounds.
      • It was difficult to practice selective breeding of livestock.
      • It was not easy to get enough way for winter breeding and farmers slaughtered animals in autumn.
      • Discouraged the use of machines.
    2. Six remedies that should be put in place by third world countries to prevent food shortage.  (12 marks)
      • Land reclamation through irrigation and drainage of swamps.
      • Agricultural policies to be reformulated from concentration on cash crops to paying more attention to food production and encourage indigenous crops.
      • Provision of extension services e.g. advice research, information dissemination and training of Agricultural officers.
      • Infrastructural development be improved e.g. transport, storage and marketing.
      • Reforestation programmes by planting more checking soil erosion, protection of water catchment areas and intercropping.
      • Intensive agricultural research undertaken to develop drought resident crops, control pests.
      • Stoppage of civil string through peaceful conflict resolutions and democracy.
      • Subsidies / reduction of taxes on farm inputs to increase production.
      • Control the rate of population growth through family planning (6x2 = 12 marks)
    • Three uses of canals. (3 marks)
      • To shorten trade routes in transport.
      • Linking industrial centres to other parts.
      • Water from canals can be used to irrigate land.
      • Canals supply water to town.
      • Acts as safety measures for controlling floods.
    • Six factors that promoted industrialization in South Africa.(12 marks)
      • Availability of natural resources / minerals / raw materials which were processed by her industries.
      • Industrial goods being of high quality can compete favourably for market internally, continentally and the rest of the world.
      • High population in South Africa has contributed to both skilled and unskilled labour.
      • Development of sources of energy HEP, coal.
      • Well developed network of roads, water, air and railway transport to transport raw materials and manufactured goods.
      • Availability of capital mainly from trade in minerals earns the country foreign exchange.
      • Political stability after the end of apartheid rule has encouraged trade and investment.
      • Government support through good polices of promoting industrialization in the country and encouraged local and foreign investors. (6x2 = 12 marks)
    1. Three social factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa.       (3 marks)
      • Missionary factor / the need to spread Christianity / protect missionaries.
      • Need to settle their surplus population of Europe.
      • Abolition of Slave trade.
      • To civilize Africans through western education and medicine.
      • Role of influential individuals.
      • Racism and paternalism.
    2. Six characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)
      • There was a large number of European settlers hence influenced the system of administration.
      • Many British settlers believed that the territory was pre-ordained to be white settler colony.
      • The colony was administered by a commercial company.
      • It was headed by an administrator, followed by other Europeans.
      • The method of administration was applied to the Africans.
      • Legislative council was started, giving Europeans political rights for self government.
      • Europeans acquired large tracks of land hence compel Africans to provide labour.          (6x2 = 12 marks) 


    1. Five factors that led to the growth of Asante Kindom. (5 marks)
      • Agriculture – The land was fertile and well – watered hence suitable for mixed farming.
      • Trade – Through Trans- Atlantic Trade, the empire acquired wealth.
      • Unity and stability – Golden stool and centralized political system under Asaintehene, provided unity.
      • Efficient standing Army – It had a large Army strengthened by introduction of guns and gun powder.
      • Conquest – The united against oppression and created a new Kingdom around Kumasi which was closely knit.
      • Able leadership – They had able rulers like Obiri, Osei Tutu and Opoku who united the people.
    2.  Five functions of the Lukiiko among the Bunganda Kingdom. (10 marks)
      • Made laws for the Kingdom.
      •  Advised the Kabaka.
      • Represented the interests of the people.
      • Acted as the court of appeal / settled disputes.
      • Directed the collection of taxes in the Kingdom and planned government expenditure.
      • Checked the activities of government.
      • The Bataka were the minor chiefs in charge of clans who were answerable to the Mugema.        (5x2 = 10 marks)
    1. Five roles played by Kwame Nkrumah in liberation of Africa. (5 marks)
      • He formed a political party, the CPP which fought for independence in Gold coast.
      •  He wrote a newspaper, the Accra Evening News which articulated the demands of people of Ghana
      • He held rallies mobilize Ghanaians towards the struggle for independence.
      • He organized industrial boycotts encouraging the people to boycott European goods.
      • His arrest and detention in 1950 turned international attention to the plight of Ghanaians.
      • He attended international conferences highlighting the cause of the Gold Coast independence.
      • He attended constitutional negotiations which red to Ghana’s Independence.(6x2 = 12 marks)
    2. Five political challenges faced by Tanzania since independence.   (10 marks)
      • Army muting over delayed promotion of Africa in 1964.
      • Riots by students of university of Dar-e-salam who opposed forceful service in National Youth Service.
      • The assassination of AbeidKarume 1972 caused tension.
      • Attack of Tanzania by Dictator Idi Amin put the country into costly and unnecessary war.
      • The country had large influx of refugees.
      • Resignation of AboudJumbe strained relations between Zanzibar and main land Tanzania.Re-introduction of multi-party democracy reignited ethnic differences and regionalism.
      • Failure of ujamaa policy weakened public confidence in the government.
      • Personality differnces between Nyerere, Amin and Jomo Kenyatta undermined regional cooperation.
      • Collapse of EAC
      • Border closure. (5x2 = 10 marks)
    1. Five roles of the state governments in USA. (5 marks)
      • It maintains law and order using state police.
      • It makes state laws using the state legislative.
      • It provides social amenities to its citizens, e.g. education, health and public works.
      • It generates revenue from a number of internal sources.
      • It administers Justice using the state law courts.
      • It provides administrative structure within the states such as counties, municipalities and townships (5x2 = 10 marks)
    2. Five factors that may limit the supremacy of parliament in Britain.        (10 marks)
      • Local authorities make and pass by – laws without consulting parliament.
      • Legislation made by parliament may be altered by a future parliament.
      • As parliament makes laws, it takes into consideration the moral values of the society.
      • The Action of parliament are heavily influenced by public opinion.
      • Before legislation is made in parliament, the interest of the affected institutions are taken into accounts.
      • International law is taken into account when parliament is making laws.  (5x2 = 10 marks)                               
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