Biology Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Mocks 2020/2021

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  1. Explain why malaria cannot be transmitted through blood transfusion. (2 marks)
  2. A boy held a locust upside down and attempted to drown it in water by immersing the head in water.
    1. Was he successful? (1 mark)
    2. Explain. (2 marks)
  3. The diagram below shows the position of an image formed in a defective eye.
    1. Name the defect: (1 mark)
    2. Explain how the defect named in (a) above can be corrected. (2 marks)
    3. Using a sketch, draw to demonstrate how the above condition is corrected. (1 mark)
  4. State two ways in which scales are adapted to their function. (2 marks)
    1. What is the name given to two protrusions on the posterior end of the skull, that articulate to the atlas. (1 mark)
    2. Give the name of the joint formed in (i) above, and state its functions. (1 mark)
    1. What is emulsification? (1 mark)
    2. Name two emulsifying agents found in the human bile. (2 marks)
  7. The diagram below represents part of alimentary canal. Study it and use it to answer the questions that follow.


    1. Identify the diagram shown above. (1 mark)
    2. Name the parts labelled J and L.
      J......... (1 mark)
      L........ (1 mark)
    3. What are the components of the substance produced by part labeled K. (1 mark)
  8. Describe the events that constitutes the crossing over . (3 marks)
  9. The diagram below shows the part of gaseous exchange structures in human.

    State three roles of the nasal cavity in human. (3 marks)
    1. Distinguish between complete dominance and incomplete dominance. (2 marks)
    2. Give an example of a characteristic trait that is inherited under incomplete dominance. (1 mark)
    1. In 1953, S.L Miller carried out an experiment to explain which theory in evolution? (1 mark)
    2. What is meant by vestigial structures? (1 mark)
    3. Give an example of a vestigial structure in human. (1 mark)
    1. What do you understand by the term exoskeleton. (1 mark)
    2. State the name of two tissues that constitutes the endoskeleton. (2 marks)
    3. State the name of the phylum where the exoskeleton is found. (1 mark)
  13. Observe the diagram below to answer the questions that follows.


    1. State the name of the condition shown in the diagram above. (1 mark)
    2. Name the type of fins that prevents the condition named in 14 (a) above. (2 marks)
  14. The diagram below represents a sketch of certain organism found in a store room of food stuff in most homes.


    1. State the branch of biology that deals with the study of the above organisms. (1 mark)
    2. Name the type of cell division that takes place at part labelled S. (1 mark)
    3. Identify part labeled V and state their function.
      V .......(1 mark)
      Functions ...... (1 mark)
  15. Distinguish between obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes. (2 marks)
  16. Giving examples, state two ways in which biological nitrogen fixation is carried out. (4 mark)
    1. State one sample counting method which is not suitable in a densely forested habitat. (1 mark)
    2. The information below shows how a student took information in order to estimate the population of beetles in a field. Estimate the population. (2 marks)


  18. State three aspects of growth that can be estimated in living organisms. (3 marks)
  19. Giving examples, explain what you understand by cranial nerves. (3 marks)
  20. Give two external features of members of class Aves. (2 marks)
    1. What do you understand by the term Lichen with reference to ecology? (2 marks)
    2. Name the other equivalent association that involved roots of higher plants and Fungi. (1 mark)
  22. A student filled the bell jar shown below with water and inverted it in a bucket also full of water. Through the rubber tube attached, he took a very deep breath and blew as much air as possible through the tubing.
    1. It is possible to have deepest possible exhalation. What name do we give to such volume of air. (1 mark)
    2. How much air leaves the lungs each time you breath out during normal quiet breathing? (1 mark)
    3. State the changes in the external intercostal muscles during above activity. (1 mark)
    4. Name the part of the brain that controls breathing movements. (1 mark)
  23. State three ways in which root hairs are adapted to their function. (3 marks)
    1. Mammals have a constant body temperature. What name is given to this condition? (1 mark)
    2. List three behavioral adaptations in animals in an attempt to remain warm. (3 marks)
  25. State three structural differences between phloem and xylem tissues. (3marks)
    1. Define the term osmosis. (1 mark)
    2. Describe the role of diffusion in plants reproduction. (2 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. 1. It is a vector disease; Parasites are transmitted from a sick individual to a healthy one through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito;(2 marks)
  2. No; (1 mark)
    The spiracles are found only on the sides of the thorax and abdomen; and the insect will continue with ventilation since there are no spiracles on the head; (2 marks)
    1. Myopia (1 mark)
    2. Wearing concave or diverging lens; lenses diverges light rays before reaching the eye lens which then focuses the light rays on the retina.
  4.  The scales overlap and are pointed backwards-To allow water to pass over the fish easily without any obstructions; - lie close to the body; thus enhancing the streamlined shape to reduce water resistance during movement (2 marks)
    1. Occipital condyles; (1 mark)
      • Hinge joint; (1 mark)
      • Nodding/ up and down movement of the head;
    1. break down of fats into tiny droplets to increase surface area for digestion; (1 mark)
    2. sodium glycocholate; sodium taurocholate;
    1. Villus (of Ileum); (1 mark)
    2. Lacteal; (1 mark)
    3. Brunner’s gland; reject small b...brunner’s (1 mark)
    4. Maltase, Sucrase, Peptidase and Lipase; (at least two correct)
  8. This occurs during prophase 1 of the first meiotic division; where the non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes are attached at chiasmata; chromatid segments break and join leading to genetic exchanges; as a result, gametes with a wide range of gene combinations are formed;
  9. The diagram below shows the part of gaseous exchange structures in human.
    (3 marks)

    The mucus and hair filter and trap dust and pathogens from the air, so particles are prevented from entering the lungs.
    Air is warmed and moistened in the nasal cavity;
    Has sense organs for detecting and distinguish different types of smell; (3 marks)
    1. This is a characteristic of monohybrid inheritance in which one gene completely dominates the other while incomplete dominance a phenomenon where there is no complete dominance but phenotypes are intermediate between the two parents; (2 marks)
    2. snap dragon plant flower colour/ Mirabilis jalapa;(1 mark)
    1. Chemical evolution theory; (1 mark)
    2. are those structures that have ceased to be functional over a long period of time and have become reduced in size;
    3. coccyx/appendix/caecum/nictating membrane (semilunar folds in the corner
      of the eye)/ ear muscles/ body hair;
    1. the skeleton is found on the outer surface of the body; (1 mark)
    2.  bones; cartilage; (2 marks)
    3. Phylu-m Arthropoda;
    1. Yawing; (1 mark)
    2. Pectoral; and pelvic fins; (2 marks)
    1. Mycology; (1 mark)
    2. Mitosis; (1 mark)
    3. V – Rhizoids; (1 mark)
      it absrbs nutrients; (1 mark)
  15. These are organisms that respire in the absence of O2 and die in the presence of O2. They lack the enzyme catalase which breaks down hydrogen peroxide. (H2O2) e.g. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium botulinum,Clostridium tettani.
    - These are organisms that respire in the presence or absence of O2 e.g. yeast, most bacteria, parasites or fungi. (2 marks)
    • Symbiotic bacteria; eg Rhizobium
    • Free-living bacteria; Azatobacter/Clostridium; (2 marks)
    1. Quadrat method; (1 mark)
    2. Approx. beetle population = 
      7x10 = 35
  18. - Height; Weight; Volume; Length; Surface area; (3 marks)
  19. these are nerves that arise from the brain; eg - Optic nerve; -Auditory nerve; Olfactory nerve; Facial nerves; (3 marks)
  20. They have beaks; They have hollow bones; The hind limbs are for walking or swimming/The fore limbs are modified into wings for flight; The hind limbs have scaly skin; (2 marks)
    1. This is a symbiotic association between (blue-green) algae and a fungus; The (blue-green) algae carries out photosynthesis and provides the fungus with carbohydrates.(2 marks)
    2. Mycorrhiza; (1 mark)
    1. Vital capacity; (1 mark)
    2. 500 cm3; (1 mark)
    3. Relax; (1 mark)
    4. Medulla oblongata; (1 mark)
    • are numerous, long and slender to provide a large surface area through which absorption of water and mineral salts take place;
    • have numerous mitochondria to supply energy for active transport;
    • have a thin cell wall which ensures rapid movement of materials;
    • Cell vacuole has high solute concentration to maintain a high osmotic pressure to absorb water;
    • Cell vacuole is large to store absorbed water and salts;
    • Have short life span but are continuously replaced by new ones that develop nearer to the tip; (3 marks)
    1. Homoeothermic; (1 mark)
    2. Hibernation ; crowding; coiling; (3 marks)
    Phloem Xylem
    1. made of living cells
    2. have companion cells
    3. have cytoplasmic strands
    4. lack lignin deposits
    1. made up of dead cells;
    2. lack companion cells;
    3. lack cytoplasmic strands;
    4. have lignin deposits;
    (3 marks)

    1. process by which water molecules move from the region of their high conc. to low con across semipermeable membrane; / - process by which solvent molecules move from the region of low conc. to high con across semipermeable membrane; /process by which solvent molecules move from hypotonic to hypertonic solution across semipermeable membrane;
    2. insect pollinated flowers are scented; for attraction of the insects, when the scent diffuse;

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