Instructions to students
- Answer all questions
- Answer all questions in English.
- COMPREHENSION (20 MARKS)
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
Writing skills are an important part of communication. Good writing skills allow you to communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far larger audience than through face to face or telephone conversations.
You might be called upon to write a report, plan or strategy at work; write a grant appli8cation or press release within a volunteering role; or you may fancy communicating your ideas online via a blog. And, of course, a well written CV or resume with no spelling or grammatical mistakes is essential if you want a new job.
Today, when anyone can be their own publisher, we see more and more examples of poor writing skills both in print and on the web. Poor writing skills create first impressions and many readers will have an immediate negative reaction if they spot a spelling or grammatical mistake. As just one example, a spelling mistake on a commercial web page may cause potential customers to doubt the credibility of the web and the organization.
Correct grammar, punctuation and spelling are key in written communication. The reader will form an opinion of you, the author, based on both the content and presentation, and errors are likely to lead them to form a negative impression.
If you are unconvinced about the importance of accurate writing, think of the clues we use to identify spam emails, ‘phishing’ websites, and counterfeit products: poor grammar and spelling.
Similarly, some employers state publicly that any cv or resume containing spelling or grammatical mistakes will be rejected immediately, whilst a BBC news article quotes research that calculates spelling mistakes cost online businesses ‘millions’ in lost sales.
Checking for poor writing and spelling mistakes should be seen as a courtesy to your readers since it can take them much longer to understand the messages in your writing if they have to think and re-read text to decipher these.
All written communications should therefore be re-read before spending to print, or hitting the send button in the case of emails, as it is likely that there will be errors. Do not assume that spelling and grammar checkers will identify all mistakes as many incorrect words can indeed be spelt correctly (for example, when ‘their’ is used instead of ‘there’ or ‘principle’ instead of ‘principal’) or entire words may be missing. If at all possible, take a break before re-reading and checking your writing, as you are more likely to notice problems when you read it fresh.
Even if you know spelling and grammar rules, you should still double check your work or even better, have it proof-read by somebody else. Our brains work faster than our fingers can type the accidental typographical errors (typos) inevitably creep in.
The good news is that writing is a skill, which can be learned like any other. One trick for checking and improving your work is to read it aloud. Reading texts forces you to slow down and you may pick up problems with the flow that your eye would otherwise skip over. As well as grammar, spelling and punctuation, it is important to remember your audience.
Always write with your audience in mind, and it can also help to bear in mind the medium in which you plan to publish. This knowledge will help you decide whether you need to write in a formal style or a more informal one, and will also help you to decide on a suitable structure.
- Why are good writing skills important? (3 marks)
- What effect does poor writing skills have? (2 marks)
- In a paragraph of not more than 50 words, summarize the steps involved in good writing.(5mks)
- Explain the irony in paragraph three. (3mks)
- ’The good news is that writing is a skill which can be learned like any other.’
Rewrite beginning with a participle (1mk)
- Mention four things apart from grammar, spelling and punctuation that the writer advocates we should remember when writing. (2mks)
- Explain the meaning of the following expressions as they are used in the passage. (4mks)\
- Counterfeit products …………………………………………………………………………
- Decipher ……………………………………………………………………………………..
- Phishing ……………………………………………………………………………………..
- Typographical errors …………………………………………………………………………
- EXCERPT (25 Marks)
Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow.
Nora: What right have you to question me,Mr. Krogstad?Youare one of my husband’s subordinates! But since you ask, you shall know. Yes, Mrs Linde is to have an appointment. And it was I who pleaded her cause, let me tell you that.
Krogstad:I was right in what I thought, then.
Nora :( walking up and down the stage) Sometimes one has a tiny little bit of influence, I should hope. Because one is a woman, it does not necessarily follow that_.When anyone is in a subordinate position, Mr. Krogstad, they should really be careful to avoid offending anyone who who-
Krogstad: Who has influence?
Krogstad :( changing his tone) Mrs. Helmer, you will be so good as to use your influence on my behalf.
Nora: What do you mean?
Krogstad: You will be so kind as to see that I am allowed to keep my subordinate position in the bank.
Nora: What do you mean by that? Who proposes to take your post away from you?
Krogstad: Oh, there is no necessity to keep up the pretence of ignorance. I can quite understand that your friend is not very anxious to expose herself to the chance of rubbing shoulders with me; and I quite understand, too, whom I have to thank for being turned off.
Nora: But I assure you_
Krogstad: Very likely, but, to come to the point, the time has come when I should advise you to use your influence to prevent that.
Nora: But, Mr. krogstad,I have no influence.
Krogstad: Haven’t? I thought you said yourself just now-
Nora: Naturally I did not mean you put that construction on it! What should make you think I have any influence of that kind with my husband?
Krogstad: Oh,I have known your husband from our student days. I don’t suppose he is any more unassailable than other husbands.
Nora: If you speak slightingly of my husband, I shall turn you out of the house.
Krogstad: You are bold,Mrs. Helmer.
Nora: I am not afraid of you any longer. As soon as the New Year comes, I shall in a very short time be free of the whole thing.
Krogstand:(controlling himself)Listen to me,Mrs.Helmer.If necessary, I am prepared to fight for my small post in the bank as if I were fighting for my life.
Nora: So it seems.
Krogstad: It is not only for the sake of the money; indeed, that weighs least with me in the matter. There is another reason-well, I may as well tell you. My position is this. I daresay you know, like everybody else, that once, many years ago, I was guilty of indiscretion.
Nora: I think have heard something of the kind.
Krogstad: The matter never came into our court; but every way seemed to be closed to me after that. So I took to the business that you know of. I had to do something; and, honestly,I don’t think I’ve been one of the worst. But now I must cut myself free from all that. My sons are growing up; for their sake I must try and win back as much respect as I can in town. This post in the Bank was like the first step up for me-and now your husband is going to kick me downstairs again into the mud.
Nora: But you must believe me,Mr. Krogstad; it is not in my power to help you all.
Krogstad: Then it is because you haven’t the will; but I have means to compel you.
- Krogstad asks four questions just before this excerpt. Which are they? (4 marks)
- For what reasons has Krogstad visited Nora? Refer to what happens in the excerpt and in the rest of the play
- ’I was right in what I thought, then. ‘what do you think Krogstad thought? 2mks
- Describe two character traits of Nora as brought out in the excerpt 4mks
- Rewrite the sentences according to the instructions given after each without changing their meaning. 2mks
- If you speak slightingly of my husband, I shall turn you out of the house.(use: unless…………..)
- So it seems.(supply a question tag.)
- Identify and illustrate any two themes evident in this excerpt 4mks
- ’’Then it is because you haven’t the will; but I have means to compel you. ‘How does Krogstad plan to force Nora to talk to her husband? 3mks
- Write a word with the same meaning as each one of the following. 3mks
- POETRY. (20 MARKS)
Read the oral poem below and answer the questions that follow.
THE CROP THIEVES
Tswiris! tswiri! I the person I suspect?
What have you heard that makes you suspicious?
I heard things said, rumors of weaver birds;
They ate corns in Lesiba’s field and finished it
And when they left they sounded hummmm-
They said, ‘listen to the numerous weaver birds
Children of the horse that ate the courtyards and the times
It is the numerous weaver birds
The grey ones that go about in swarms
Children with the little red beaks
Children that make a noise in the mimosa trees
Tupu-tupu! The smoke comes out while the dew still glitters
Howaaa! Sweaaa! –is heard in the early morning
They are finishing the corn, the numerous weaver bird
Children with withered beaks
At home, it is yo! Yo!
Then children are crying
Their mothers have gone to the fields to the birds
It is the Zulus that have entered the country
Take axes and loop the tree branches
Yo! This year we shall eat fire
We shall lack even a blue tongued goat!
It is numerous weaver birds; the grey ones
That go about in swarms.
- What kind of oral poem is this? 2mks
- Explain two functions of the oral poem. 2mks
- Identify and illustrate two oral features of the poem 4mks
- What does the poem tell us about the character trait of the weaver bird 2mks
- Which lines show that the people will keep on suffering if they do not keep the birds away 2mks
- Identify and illustrate two economic activities practiced in this community 4mks
- What is the attitude of the singer towards the weaver bird? 2mks
- Explain the meaning of the following lines. 2mks
- We shall lack even a blue tongued goat.
- It is the Zulus that have entered the country.
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given without changing the meaning.3mks
- Maria said the young men had stolen her sweet potatoes.(Rewrite beginning with: Maria accused…….)
- It required a lot of planning and great courage to introduce free primary education in Kenya.(Begin: The….)
- The judges declared that Cheptoo had won. (Finish:…………..winner)
- Explain two different meanings of the following sentence. 2mks
The chicken is ready to eat.
- Appropriately punctuate the following sentences to indicate parenthesis. 2mks
- When we meet next and I am not sure when a lot of things will have changed.
- Any information you have including minor details should be submitted to the office.
- Fill in the blank spaces with the most appropriate preposition. (3 marks)
- My classmate insisted ……………..coming with me for the half term.
- The company was restrained from disposing………….its property by a court orders.
- The fire victims writhed ………….terrible pain as the rescuers provided first aid.
- Use the following word as a preposition in one sentence and the other sentence as a subordinating conjunction. 2mks
- Replace the underlined word with a phrasal verb. 2mks
- The member of parliament cancelled the meeting. -
- That child resembles her mother. -
- Underline the adverbial clause in the following sentence. 1mk
They loaded the lorry while we waited.
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given without changing the meaning.3mks
- They allow you to communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far larger audience than through face to face or telephone answer.
- Creates poor first impression and immediate negative reaction if they spot a spelling or grammatical mistake.
- Summary of steps involved in good writing.
- Check for poor writing and spelling mistakes
- Re-read all written communications
- Do not assume that spelling and grammar checkers will identify mistakes.
- Even if you know spelling and grammar rules, double check your work.
- Or have it proofread by somebody else as many incorrect words can indeed be spelt correctly
- Irony-Today in the first century it is expected that literacy levels have risen and people know how to write well. Instead more and more examples of poor writing skills both in print and on the web are seen.
- Writng is a skill which can be learned like any other, this is the good news.
- The medium
- Formal/informal style
- fake materials
- Make out
- typing mistakes.
- If it is Mrs. Linde he has seen with Helmer
- If Mrs. Linde has just arrived in town
- That Mrs.Lindeand Nora have been friends
- If Mrs. Linde is to have an appointment in the bank
- To plead with Nora to influence her husband to help him keep the job
- To remind Nora of their fraud
- To blackmail Nora
- That Nora pleaded with Helmer to fire Krogstad and replace him with Mrs. Linde
- Protective-She can’t afford to have Krogstad speak ill about her husband.
- Bold-She tells Krogstad that she is no longer afraid of him
- Optimistic-She hopes to be free from the whole thing.(deb
- I shall keep/entertain you in my house unless you speak slightly of my husband.
- So it seems, doesn’t it?
- Role of women-Krogstad believes Nora can influence her husband to help him keep the job.
- Boldness-Nora is bold enough to caution Krogstad against speaking ill of her husband.
- Telling her about the nature of the money she borrowed him. He reminds Nora of the details of their business.He tell Nora that when he goes down, Nora too will lose her position.
- A work song (1mk)-the mothers have gone to the fields to chase away the birds (1mk)
- It encourages people to work
- It mocks the lazy ones in the society
- It extols good virtues of hard work
- Idiophones-tswiri tswiri aaaa!yo!yo!yo!
- Direct address-They said ‘listen to the numerous we have birds, sons of Mosima’s family
- Direct translation-I heard things said rumors of weaverbirds
- Repetition-children of the house
- Destructive-they eat the corned in the fields. They are finishing the corns
- Yo!This year we shall eat fire. We shall lack even a blue tongued goat
- There is farming
- Iron smelting/black smithing, take axes
- They will not have food if the weaver bird keep on invading their cornfield
- The weaver birds have invaded their farms in large numbers.
- Maria accused the young men of stealing her sweet potatoes.
- The introduction of free primary education in Kenya required a lot of planning and great courage.
- The judges declared cheptoo the winner.
- The chicken is cooked and it is ready to be eaten.
The chicken can be fed.
- When we meet next (and I am not sure when) a lot of things will have changed.
- Any information you have (including minor details) should be submitted to the office.
(Accept also dashes, commas)
- The scouts have camped here since last week. (Preposition)
I have not seen Mary since she left for Nairobi in January. (Conjunction)
- called off
- Takes after
- They loaded the lorry while we waited.