Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Momaliche Joint Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • Write your name and index number and school,Sign and write the date in the spaces provided above.
  • This paper consists of THREE sections ;A,B and C.
  • Answer All the questions insection A and B in the spaces provided and any TWO questions from section C in the answer sheet provided

SECTION A(30MKS)

  1. Why is ranching becoming more and more common in Kenya? (1mk)
  2. State Three factors that determine depth of cultivation. (1½ mks)
  3. What is the function of the wood ash in the preparation of compost manure? (½ mk)
  4. State Four ways on how Government policy influence Agricultural production. (2mks)
  5. State two types of labour records. (1mk)
  6. Defferentiate between a straight fertilizer and a compound fertilizer. (2mks)
  7. Give an example of a crop in which the following vegetative propagation materials are used.(2mks)
    1. Splits:……………………………………………………………………………………….
    2. Slips:………………………………………………………………………………………..
  8. Name two methods of frame formation in pruning of tea. (1mk)
  9. What is meant by the term changing the cycle in Coffee growing? (1mk)
  10. Give Four reasons for carrying out pruning in crops. (2mk)
  11. State four factors affecting the efficiency of pesticides. (2mks)
  12. List four factors that determine quality of hay. (2mks)
  13. State four factors influencing land fragmentation and sub-division. (2mks)
  14. Differentiate between Topping and Topdressing. (2mks)
  15. State Four advantages of using certified seeds. (2mks)
  16. Define the following terms as used in Crop production.
    1. Hardening off. (1mk)
    2. Pricking out. (1mk)
  17. State any Four biotic factors influencing crop production. (2mks)
  18. State any four methods of fertilizer application. (2mks)

    SECTION B (20MKS)
  19. The illustration below shows a type of soil erosion. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1
    1. Identify the type of erosion illustrated above. (1mrk)
    2. Give two soil factors that influence the rate of soil erosion. (2mrks)
    3. Name one agent of soil erosion. (1mrk)
  20. The diagram below shows a method of irrigation.
    2
    1. Name the type of irrigation shown above. (1mk)
    2. Give three disadvantages of the method named in (a) above . (3mks)
  21. The diagram shown below is a banana tissue culture
    3
    1. What is tissue culture?(1mk)
    2. State the sequence of three stages of tissue culture. (3mks)
  22. The diagram labeled D below shows a Kale crop invested by a pest
    4
    1. Identify the pest. (1mk)
    2. What damage does the pest cause the crop? (1mk)
    3. State two methods of controlling the pest. (2mks)
  23. The diagram below shows a weed
    5
    1. Identify the weed (1mk)
    2. State two reasons for controlling the weed (2mks)
    3. Name two herbicides that can be used to control the weed in a field of maize (1mk)

      SECTION C (40MKS)
  24.    
    1. Explain four factors influencing Crop rotation. (8mks)
    2. Explain five ways on how soil loses its fertility. (10mks)
    3. Outline two reasons for carrying out rolling in crop production. (2mks)
  25.    
    1. What is water conservation? (2mks)
    2. Explain Eight cultural methods of soil and water conservation measures. (8mks)
    3. Outline Ten harmful effects of crop pests in crop production. (10mks)
  26.    
    1. Describe five methods a farmer can use to get rid of water from a swampy farm. (10mks)
    2. Describe the production of Tomatoes under the following sub-headings. (10mks)
      1. Land preparation. (4mks)
      2. Nursery management practices (3mks)
      3. Transplanting (3mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A(30MKS)

  1. Why is ranching becoming more and more common in Kenya? (1mk)
    Due to pressure on the high potential areas
  2. State Three factors that determine depth of cultivation. (1½ mks)
    • Implement available
    • the type of soil
    • the crop to be grown
  3. What is the function of the wood ash in the preparation of compost manure? (½ mk)
    To improve the level of phosphorus and potassium
  4. State Four ways on how Government policy influence Agricultural production. (2mks)
    • Heavy taxation of imports to protect local industries
    • quality control
    • subsidising the growing of locally produces goods
    • stepping uip control of diseases and parasites
    • conservation of natural resources
  5. State two types of labour records. (1mk)
    • Labour utilization analysis
    • muster roll
  6. Defferentiate between a straight fertilizer and a compound fertilizer. (2mks)
    Straight fertilisers are fertilisers containing only one of the primary macro-nutrient while compound fertilisers contain two or three of the primary macro-nutrients
  7. Give an example of a crop in which the following vegetative propagation materials are used.(2mks)
    1. Splits:Pyrethrum
    2. Slips:Pineapples
  8. Name two methods of frame formation in pruning of tea. (1mk)
    • Formative pruning
    • Pegging
  9. What is meant by the term changing the cycle in Coffee growing? (1mk)
    Replacement of old bearing stems by suckers
  10. Give Four reasons for carrying out pruning in crops. (2mk)
    • Control cropping/regulate bearing
    • to facilitate picking/harvesting
    • to remove the diseased or unwanted parts
    • to ease penetration of spray
  11. State four factors affecting the efficiency of pesticides. (2mks)
    • concentration
    • timing of application
    • weather condition
    • persistence
  12. List four factors that determine quality of hay. (2mks)
    • Forage species
    • stage of harvesting
    • length of drying period
    • weather conditions
    • condition of the storage structures
  13. State four factors influencing land fragmentation and sub-division. (2mks)
    • shifting cultivation
    • population pressure on limited land
    • traditional system/inheritence
    • accumulation of land holdings
  14. Differentiate between Topping and Topdressing. (2mks)
    Topping is the cutting of stems of posture that remains after direct gazing while top dressing is the addition of fertilisers to crops during the growing seasons in order to improve plant nutrition and boost yields
  15. State Four advantages of using certified seeds. (2mks)
    • High germination percentage
    • Free from pest and diseases
    • high yield
    • fast maturity
  16. Define the following terms as used in Crop production.
    1. Hardening off. (1mk)
      Practice of preparing seedlings to adapt the ecological conditions prevailing in the seed bed
    2. Pricking out. (1mk)
      Removal of excess seedlings in a nursery bed to a seedling bed
  17. State any Four biotic factors influencing crop production. (2mks)
    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • pest
    • predators
    • parasites
    • pathogens
    • decomposers
  18. State any four methods of fertilizer application. (2mks)
    • Drips method
    • side dressing
    • placement method
    • foliar spray
    • broadcasting

      SECTION B (20MKS)
  19. The illustration below shows a type of soil erosion. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the type of erosion illustrated above. (1mrk)
      Splash/raindrop erosion
    2. Give two soil factors that influence the rate of soil erosion. (2mrks)
      Soil type/soil structure/soil texture/soil depth
    3. Name one agent of soil erosion. (1mrk)
      Wind
      Water
  20. The diagram below shows a method of irrigation.
    1. Name the type of irrigation shown above. (1mk)
      Drip/trickle irrigation
    2. Give three disadvantages of the method named in (a) above . (3mks)
      • Expensive in undertaking
      • nozzles can be blocked making irrigation inefficient
      • pipes can be broken during weeding and land preparation
  21. The diagram shown below is a banana tissue culture
    1. What is tissue culture?(1mk)
      A biotechnology which is being used extensively in cloning of vegatatively propagated plants
    2. State the sequence of three stages of tissue culture. (3mks)
      1. Establishing the asceptic culture and developing the propagule
      2. A series of sub-cultivating to rapidly multiply the propagules through sematic development of embryos to produce auxillary buds and roots
      3. Involves the preparation of the propagule for the establishment in the soil
  22. The diagram labeled D below shows a Kale crop invested by a pest
    1. Identify the pest. (1mk)
      Cutworm
    2. What damage does the pest cause the crop? (1mk)
      Cut the stem at the base of the seedling
    3. State two methods of controlling the pest. (2mks)
      • Application of appropriate insecticide
      • Field hygiene
  23. The diagram below shows a weed
    1. Identify the weed (1mk)
      Black jack (Bidens pilosa)
    2. State two reasons for controlling the weed (2mks)
      • To present competition for nutrients with crops
      • To reduce incidences of pests
    3. Name two herbicides that can be used to control the weed in a field of maize (1mk)
      • Atranize plus metachlor
      • Alachlor plus Atrazine

        SECTION C (40MKS)
  24.    
    1. Explain four factors influencing Crop rotation. (8mks)
      1. Crop root depth - deep rooted crops should be alternated with shallow rooted crops
      2. Crop nutrient requirement - Heavy feeders should come first in a newly opened land
      3. Weed control - crops associated with certain weeds should be alternated with those that are not
      4. Soil fertility - leguminous crops should be included to improve soild fertility
      5. Soil structure - grass should be included to improve soil structure 
      6. Pest control - crops of same family should not follow each other in the programme
    2. Explain five ways on how soil loses its fertility. (10mks)
      1. leaching
      2. soil erosion
      3. monocropping
      4. continuous cropping
      5. burning of vegetation
        Accumulation salts and change in the soil pH
    3. Outline two reasons for carrying out rolling in crop production. (2mks)
      • To increase seed-soil contact
      • To prevent small seeds from being carried away by wind
      • To prevent soil erosion
  25.    
    1. What is water conservation? (2mks)
      Involves all practices carried out to protect water sources and maintain supply
    2. Explain Eight cultural methods of soil and water conservation measures. (8mks)
      1. Mulching - prevent splash erosion; reduce speed of run-off to reduce erosion and increase infiltration
      2. Contour farming - reduce water run-off to permit better retention of the nutrients
      3. Cover cropping - prevent movement of soil and impact of rain drops; prevent soil from being baked hard by the sun against moisture and nutrients loss
      4. Grass strips - reduce speed of flowing water and filter soil out
      5. Grassed waterways - To slow speed of water and trap eroded soil against soil erosion
      6. Strip cropping - crops with little cover are grown in alternating strips with those having good groiund cover to control movement of soil
      7. Cropping systems
      8. Afforestation and reforestation
      9. Agroforestry
    3. Outline Ten harmful effects of crop pests in crop production. (10mks)
      • Pest reduce the marketability of crop produce by lowering quality
      • Some unearth planted seeds resulting to low population
      • Destroy leaves lowering photosynthesis hence low yield
      • Some pests transmit crop diseases
      • Some damage roots causing wilting
      • Some attack fruits lowering their quality
      • Some pest e.g stalk borers eat growing plants causing stunted growth
      • In crops where the leaf is the major product pest lower quality and quantity through defoliation
      • Some destroy embryos of seeds lowering germination potential
  26.    
    1. Describe five methods a farmer can use to get rid of water from a swampy farm. (10mks)
      1. Open ditches - dug for water to flow in by gravuty
      2. Underground drain pipes are perferated and laid underground for water to seep from surrounding area into the pipes
      3. French drain - ditches dug and filled with stones and gravel then covered with soil
      4. Cambered beds - Rised bed constructed on poorly drained soils. used in combination with ditches
      5. Pumping of water out of the soil
      6. Planting of trees which lose a lot of water through evaporation
    2. Describe the production of Tomatoes under the following sub-headings. (10mks)
      1. Land preparation. (4mks)
        • Field where solanacea family have not been grown for 3 years is selected
        • Land is dug deepand all weeds removed
        • Holes are dug 15cm deep at aspacing of 90 x 60cm
        • Handful of well rotten mature and tea spoonful of D.AP fertiliser is applied
      2. Nursery management practices (3mks)
        • Weeding should be done frequently to keep the field free from weeds
        • Staking should be done to keep the tall varieties upright
        • Top dressing is done using appropriate fertiliser
        • Gapping is done to replace the dead seedlings
      3. Transplanting (3mks)
        • It should be done on a cool day, evening or morning
        • Nursery should be watered before lifting the seeds
        • Only healthy and vigorously growing seedlings are transplanted

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