Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Maranda Mocks 2022 Exams

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Paper 1

Instructions to the candidates

  • This paper consists of two sections; A and B
  • Answer all the questions in section A in the spaces provided after each question.
  • In section B, answer question 6 and any other two questions.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.


SECTION A (25 Marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided below each question

    1. Differentiate between rotation and revolution of the earth. (2 marks)
    2. The diagram below shows an effect of the rotation of the earth. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
      1. Identify the effect. (1 mark) .
      2. Other than the effect shown in the diagram, give two other effects of the rotation of the earth. (2 marks)
    1. Give three life cycles of a volcano. (3 marks) .
    2. State three characteristics of a composite cone . (3 marks)
  3. The diagram below shows major plate boundaries of the world. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the plates marked A and B. (2 marks) A: B:
    2. Name the boundaries labeled C and D. (2 marks) C: D:
    1. Give three conditions that favour the growth of coral polyps. (3 marks) .
    2. State two importance of emerged coasts. (2 marks) 
    1. Define a local climate. (2 marks)
    2. State three characteristics of equatorial climate. (3 marks)

SECTION B (75 Marks)
Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section

  1. Study the map of Kijabe (Sheet 134/3 and Scale 1: 50,000) provided and answer the questions that follow.
      1. Give two scales used in the map of Kijabe. (2 marks)
      2. Name three physical features found in grid square 2699 (3 marks)
      1. Measure the distance of the dry weather road in the north-western edge of the mapped area.. Give your answer in kilometres (2 marks)
      2. Give the approximate position of Kijabe Station in terms of latitudes and longitudes. (2 marks) .
      1. State two evidences that show the area covered by the map receives high rainfall (2 marks) .
      2. Give two social functions of the mapped area. (2 marks) . .
    4. Measure the bearing of the trigonometrical station SKP 209 (in grid square 3793) from the point (10 00’ South, 360 45’ East) (2 marks)
      1. Draw a frame measuring 14 cm by 10 cm to represent the area bound by Eastings 30 to 37 and Northings 90 to 95 (2 marks)
      2. On the frame, mark and label:
        • Thicket vegetation (1 mark)
        • All weather road bound surface (C 68) (1 mark)
      3. Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that influence coffee farming in the area covered by the Kijabe map. (6 marks)
      1. Name two areas in East Africa with glaciers (2 marks)
      2. Give two processes of glacial movements (2 marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence glacial erosion
      1. Presence of debris (2 marks)
      2. Nature of underlying rocks (2 marks)
    3. The diagram below shows features resulting from glacial erosion in highland areas. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
      1. Name the parts labeled W and Y. (2 marks) (ii) Describe how the feature marked X forms. (4 marks)
    4. Explain three ways in which glaciation influences agriculture. (6 marks)
    5. Members of your class plan to conduct a field study on glaciated lowland area.
      1. State two reasons why they would likely use observation as a method of data collection. (2 marks)
      2. Name three features of glacial deposition they are likely to observe during the study. (3 marks)
      1. Other than lakes, seas and rivers, give two other sources of underground water. (2 marks)
      2. Name two ways in which underground water may reach the surface of the earth. (2 marks)
    2. State four importance of underground water (4 marks)
      1. Give three conditions necessary for development of karst scenery (3 marks)
      2. State three reasons for few settlements in karst landscape (3 marks)
      1. Draw a well labeled diagram of a limestone cave. (2 marks)
      2. On the diagram, mark and name the following features:
        • Stalagmite (1 mark)
        • Limestone rock (1 mark)
    5.  Describe the formation of the following features:
      1. Limestone Cavern (3 marks)
      2. Uvalas (4 marks)
      1. Define the term faulting (2 marks)
      2. Name four main parts of a fault (4 marks)
    2. The figures below show some types of faults. Use them to answer the questions that follow
      1. Name two examples in East Africa of the feature labeled P. (2 marks)
      2. Identify the fault types marked Q and R (2 marks)
    3. With the aid of clearly labeled diagrams, describe the formation of a Rift Valley through the compressional forces. (7 marks)
    4. Members of your class plan to conduct a field study on the section of the Gregory Rift Valley.
      1. Give two ways in which they would prepare for the study. (2 marks)
      2. State three characteristics of the Great Rift Valley they are likely to observe during the study. (3 marks)
    5. State three ways in which faulting may affect drainage. (3 marks)
      1. Differentiate between a lake and a river (2 marks)
      2. Name two sources of rivers in Kenya. (2 marks)
    2. State three reasons why some lakes may contain saline water (3 marks) 
      1. Describe the formation of an oasis. (5 marks)
      2. Give three examples of lakes formed due to faulting in Kenya. (3 marks)
    4. Describe the following drainage systems
      1. Superimposed (3 marks)
      2. Concordant (1 mark)
    5. Explain three economic significance of rivers. (6 marks)

Marking Scheme

    1. Rotation is the spinning of the earth around an axis while revolution of the earth is the movement of the earth around the sun
      1. Day and night
        • Time difference of 1 hour between meridians that are 15° apart
        • Rise and fall of ocean tides
        • Deflections of winds and ocean currents
      1. - Pacific
      2. - African
      • C- constructive
      • Destructive
      • Active
      • Dormant
      • Extinct
      • It has a depression/crater/caldera at the top
      • Has subsidiary cones/conelets
      • Has alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic materials
      • It is steep sided
      • It has a side vent
      • It has a conical shape
      • It consists of a vertical vent
      • Temperature of 25°C to 29°C and should never fall below 20°C for proper growth
      •  The polyps must be submerged in the ocean
      • Water must be clear and salty
      • The waters must be shallow
      • Absence of moving wave and tidal load
      • Provides land for settlement
      • Exposition of features for tourist attraction
      • These are climates that are experienced in the immediate surroundings of some phenomena on the earth's surface
      • Temperatures are high throughout the year 24°C - 27°C
      • Small annual range of temeprature 3°C - 5°C
      • Moderate diurnal range of temeparture 8°C
      • Thick cloud cover
      • High rainfall throughout the year/ mean annual rainfall exceeds 1500mm
      • Rainfall is mainly convectional
      • Rainfall regime is double
      • High relative humidity throughout the year
      • Atmospheric pressure is relatively low even at sea level
        • Ratio/ representative fraction scale
        • Linear scale
        • Kijabe hill
        • Steep slopes
        • Scrub vegetation
        • 8.5km ± 0.1km
        • 0° 55' south, 36° 35' East
        • Presence of coffee plantation
        • Presence of many permanent rivers
        • Presence of a forest on the eatern parts of the map
        • Education - presence of many schools
        • Healthcare provision- dispensary in grid square 3790, Kijabe hospital in grid square 3295
        • Religion- a church grid square 3890
        • Thicket vegetation
        • All weather road bound surface (C68)
    5.   308° ± 1°      
      • Highlands/ areas of high relief evidenced by forests to the eastern parts of the map, ideal for coffee growing
      • High rainfall evidenced by forests, many permanent river that ensure enough water supply during the growing
      • Shelter of young coffee trees from dirtect sunlight evidenced by the forests
      • Undulating/gently rolling topography evidenced by widely spaced contours to ensure the soils are well drained.
        • Mt. Kenya
        • Mt. Elgon
        • Mt. Kilimanjaro
        • Plastic flowage
        • Basal slip
        • Extrussion flow
        • The more the debris embedded in the glacier the more effective is abrasion process
        • Well jointed/ faulted rocks are easily eroded by plucking since the joints allow water to enter the rock. Less resistant rocks are eroded faster by abrasion compared to more resistant rocks.
        • W- Hanging valley
          Y- alluvial fan
        • They start occurring when a pre-existing river valley is filled with ice/glacier
        • As glacier moves downstream, tributary glaciers increase the amount of ice in the main valley
        • Glacier erodes the main valley by plucking and abrasion
        • Interlocking spurs in the main valley trimmed into truncated spurs
        • Continued glacial erosion depens, widens and straightens the main valley floor forming a U-shaped or glacial trough.
      • Areas uner glaciation may experience permafrost condition that are less ideal for plant growth.
      • Some glacial features eg outwash plains, tills and old glacial beds may contain fertile soils that favour growth of crops and pasture for livestock
      • Some outwash plains may contain infertile sandy soils that hindert agricultural practices.
      • Glaciation may lead to rugged landscape that discourages agricultural activities.
        • It gives first hand/ real time information
        • It saves time during  the field study
        • It is cheap/ less expensive
        • Data collected by observation is reliable.
        • Erratics
        • Boulder trains
        • Kames
        • Eskers
        • Drumlins
        • Terminal moraines
        • Outwash plains
        • Magmatic/ plutonic
        • Water from snow melt
        • Rain water
        • As springs
        • Capillary action
        • Wells drilled in to the water table
      • Springs are sources of many rivers that provides water for domestic, industrial and irrigation.
      • Wells, boreholes, oases also provide water for domestic and industrial uses
      • A line of springs at the foot of an escarpment can attract escarpment
      • Valuable minerals salts may be deposited at the mouth of hot springs and mined to earn revenue, create employment opportunities.
      • In areas under volcanic influence, underground water is heated to form geysers and hot springs that are sources of geothermal energy and tourists attractions- earn foreign exchange.
        • Soluble rocks at the surface and below
        • Rock well jointed
        • Resistant rocks
        • Hot and humid climate
        • Water table deep below the surface.
        • The areas are rocky/ have a rugged surface that discourages settlement and agriculture
        • They have thin soils that are less ideal for growth of crops
        • There is inadequate water supply/ lack adequate water supply.
        • Stalagmite
        • Limestock rock
        • Carbonation and solution process along the joints of limestone rock leads to formation of a tunnel
        • Continued solution enlarges the tunnel to form a cave
        • The process of cave formation may continue, widening and deepening the existing cave to form cavern
        • River or rain water disappear into the ground through joints in the rock
        • The water widens and deepens the joints through solution leading to the development of a vertical hole/ shaft called a sink or swallow hole.
        • The swallow hole is widened through continued solution until the rock blocks between the hollows are completely dissolved to form a doline
        • Continued solution dissolve the rock blocks between dolines leading to their collapse or merger to form uvalas
        • Breaking / cracking/ fracturing of crustal rock due to tectonic forces
        • Upthrow
        • Downthrow
        • Fault scarp
        • Throw
        • Heave
        • Hade
        • Pare
        • Usambara
        • Ruwenzori
        • Matthews Range
        • Ndoto hills
        • Nyiru Hills
        • Q- thrust 
          R- reversed
      • When sections of crustal rocks are subjected to forces of compression, lines of weakness occur and leads to development of adjacent reversed faults
      • Continued compression pushes the outer blocks towards each other and as a result, they thrust/ rise over/ above the central block to form the rift valley floor
      • The steep fault scarp on either side of the outer blocks are further worn out by denudation to form gentle slopes
        • Seeking permission from school adminitration and local administration
        • Conducting a reconnaissance
        • Indentification of data collection techniques/ equipment
        • Heights of the fault scarps vary
        • Major fault scarps here include Elgeyo, Mau, Laikipia, Nyandarua and Nguruman
        • Step faulting is common within this.
        • The width of the rift valley varies
        • The height of the valley floor also varies
        • Volcanic activity on the floor of this rift
        • Unequal subsidence has created shallow basins, some occupied by lakes
      • Faulting along a river may make the river change/ reverse its direction of flow.
      • It may lead to a back tilted drainage system
      • It may make a river to completely disappear
      • It may make the river to flow along the fault line/ fault guided drainage pattern
      • faulting may lead to formation of depressions in which water may collect to form lakes
      • Step faulting along a river course may lead to dvelopment of waterfalls.          
      1. A lake is a water body that occupies a depression/ hollow/basin on earth's surface where as a river is a body of water flowing in a valley( along a natural channel) from an upland area towards the lowland.
        • Forests e.g Mau
        • Mountains eg, Mt. Kenya, Mt. Elgon
        • Springs
      • Absence/lack of out-flowing rivers/ outlets to drain out excess salts
      • Some lakes lack enough fresh water rivers that drain into them.
      • Some rivers empty into the lakes or are fed by underground water that may contain high concentration of salt.
      • Some lakes are located in arid areas with very high rate of evaporation which leads to increased concentration and accumulation of dissolved mineral slats in the lake.
      • The bed of the lkae may comprise of soluble rock with mineral salts which dissolve in the lake water.
      • Surface run-off and rivers may dissolve a lot of salt from the rocks on which they flow.
        • Physical weathering and abrasion in arid areas result in large scale production of unconsoloidated materials of dust and sand particles.
        • The loose materials are then scooped/ removed by wind through deflation to form a shallow depression/basin.
        • Continued abrasion and deflation in the depression over time widens and deepens the depression to form a deflation hollow.
        • Wind eddies may remove unconsolidated materials from the deflation hollow through deflation.
        • If the surface of the deflation hollow is lowered until it reaches the water bearing rocks/aquifier/ water table, water oozes out of the ground and collects in the deflation hollow to form an oasis.
        • Turkana
        • Bogoria
        • Baringo
        • Nakuru
        • Naivasha
        • Elementaita
        • magadi
      1. Superimposed
        • If a river flows over the rocks it is down cutting. These rocks are removed through erosion. 
        • The river begins to flow over a new set of rocks of a different structure that are older.
        • The river maintains its original direction of flow without being influenced by the newly exposed rock structure.
        • The river flows according to the rock structure and slope by following less resistant rocks.
      • Rivers provide water used for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. 
      • Some rivers especially uin their older stage form natural waterways that can be used for transport.
      • Drowned or submerged river mouths form rias/ fjords that are deep and well sheltered thus facilitate development of ports
      • Some rivers are rich fishing around hence source of food.
      • Gravel and sand harvested from river banks are used for building and construction purposes.
      • Some river deposits contain alluvial soils with valuable mineral that can be mined for sale.
      • Features formed by rivers (waterfalls, gorges, meanders) are tourist attraction hence earning foreign revenue.
      • Some rivers provide sites for development of hydroelectric power stations and projects.
      • River deposit fertile alluvia; soil good for cultivation.
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