Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Nyeri Mocks 2021 Exams

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A 30MARKS

  1. Give two positive effects of wind in agriculture. 1mk
  2. Give a reason why nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied on a wet soil; 1mk
  3. State two reasons for drying grains before storage. 1mk
  4. State three disadvantages of planting seeds using broadcasting method. 1 ½ mks
  5. Differentiate between apiculture and aquaculture. 1mk
  6. State two excellent adaptations of weeds to their environment. 1mk
  7. Give three reasons as to why earthing up is done in crop production. 1 ½ mks
  8. Name four roles played by trees in soil and water conservation. 2mks
  9. List three methods applied in clearing land before ploughing. 1 ½ mks
  10. State three advantages of using tissue culture in crop production. 1 ½ mks
  11. State three factors which influence the efficiency of pesticides. 1/ ½ mks
  12. Give four disadvantages of land fragmentation in farming. 2mks
  13. List three characteristics that should be met by plants to be used for green manure making. 1 ½ mks
  14. State three disadvantages of metallic water pipes. 1 ½ mks
  15. Name two ways through which overhead irrigation is carried out in the farm. 1mk
  16. Name three diseases that attack tomato plants. 1 ½ mks
  17. State three benefits of large scale farming. 1 ½ mks
  18. List four farm records kept by a dairy cattle farmer. 2mks
  19. State three reasons why burning of vegetation is not recommended during land preparation. 3mks
  20. Give three conditions that limit the use of mulch in crop production. 1 ½ mks

SECTION B 20 MARKS

  1. Below is a diagram of a nursery for raising tomato seedlings.
    21 zygyu
    1. Name the part labeled K. 1mk
    2. State two advantages of part labelled K. 2mks
    3. Give three management practices that should be carried on the nursery from the time seedlings emerge to the stage of transplanting. 3mks
  2. The diagram below shows a physiological condition in tomatoes. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    22 ujygauyda
    1. Identify the condition. 1mk
    2. Give three causes of the condition identified in (a). 3mks
  3. The illustrations labelled S and T below show some structural methods used in soil and water conservation.
    23 auhydguyada
    1. Identify the structures S and T. 1mk
    2. State the function of the embarkment in the diagram S. 1mk
    3. State two ways in which structure T help to control soil erosion. 1mk
    4. State four methods of harvesting water on the farms. 2mks
  4. The diagram below shows a method of drainage. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    24 auihduyad
    1. Identify the method of drainage shown above. 1mk
    2. Other than the method shown in (a, list four other methods used in draining farmland. 2mks
    3. Outline four reasons for draining farmland. 2mks

SECTION C - ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECION. 40 MARKS

  1.                    
    1. Discuss maize production under the following sub heading.
      1. Seedbed preparation . 3mks
      2. Planting of maize
      3. Field management practices. 6mks
      4. Preparation of maize before storage. 2mks
    2. Discuss three methods used to treat seeds in order to break seed dormancy. 6mks
  2.                              
    1. State and explain briefly five ways through which soil loses its fertility. 10mks
    2. Give five main characteristics of nitrogenous fertilizers. 5mks
    3. Outline five methods that are used in application of inorganic fertilizer. 5mks
  3.                  
    1. Discuss the advantages of land consolidation and registration. 8mks
    2. Discuss the cultural methods of pest control in crops. 12mks

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Facilitates cross pollination. - brings rain bearing clouds - brings cooling effect on crops. 2 x ½ = 1mk
  2.                  
    1. faster absorption before leaching ii. Prevent volatilization 2x ½ = 1mk
  3.                
    • To prevent germination/sprouting during storage
    • to reduce insect/pest attack
    • to reduce fungal attack/ rotting. 2 x ½ =1mk
  4.              
    • uneconomical on seed use.
    • uneven germination due to uneven planting depth
    • overcrowding in some areas.
    • limists the use of machinery for subsequent operation.
    • difficult to determine plant population. 3x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  5.                
    • Apiculture is the keeping/rearing of bees while aquaculture is the rearing of fish.
      1x1 =1mk mark as a whole.
  6.              
    • Elaborate or extensive root system.
    • short life cycle. - are hardy 2x ½ = 1mk
  7.                
    • improves tuber formation.
    • improves drainage around the plant
    • improves anchorage/support and prevent lodging
    • makes harvesting easier. 3x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  8.              
    • protect soil from rain drop erosion
    • reduce speed of run off
    • leaves decay adding humus.
    • shade reduces loss of moisture
    • acts as wind breakers. 4x ½ = 2mks
  9. Tree felling - slashing weeds - use of herbicides - burning 3x ½ =1 ½ mks
  10.              
    • For mass production of propagules
    • requires less space - to establish pathogen free plants. 3x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  11.            
    • weather condition at the time of application.
    • concentration 
    • timing of application
    • persistence 3x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  12.                
    • Difficult to supervise land.
    • hinders farm mechanization
    • time wastage when moving from one piece of l and to the other.
    • difficult for agricultural extension officers to offer other services. 4 x ½ = 2mks
  13.                  
    • they should be highly vegetative.
    • they should decompose easily
    • they should have a faster growth rate
    • they should have a high nitrogen content or be leguminous.
    • they should be hardy. 3x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  14.                  
    • They are expensive 
    • they are subject to rusting 
    • their installation require skills.
      3 ½ = 1 ½ mks
  15.                
    • use of splinkers
    • use of watering cans 
    • use of hose pipes. 2 x ½ =1mk
  16.                  
    • tomato blight 
    • bacterial wilt 
    • blossom end rot 3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  17.                
    • Easy to mechanise operations 
    • easier to plan and manage
    • high quality production due to good husbandry practices.
    • cost of production per unit output is low because of economies of scale.
  18.                        
    • breeding record 
    • production record 
    • marketing record 
    • labour record
    • feeding record 4 x ½ = 2mks
  19.                      
    • fire kills the useful soil micro organisms
    • fire destroys organic matter
    • fire leads to loss of soil nutrients.
    • raises soil pH due to introduction of potash. 3 x 1 = 3mks
  20.                  
    • light rain showers/ drizzles cannot gain access to the soil.
    • can be a fire risk especially during the dry weather.
    • mulch is bulky hence expensive to transport.
    • dangerous animals e.g snakes may hide under mulch.
  21.                              
    1. overhead shade 1x1=1mk
    2.                      
      • prevent loss of moisture through evaporation.
      • Protect the seedlings from direct sunshine.
      • Protect the seedlings from damage by the rain drops. 2x1=2mks
    3.                      
      • watering of seedling.
      • Uprooting weeds.
      • Controlling pests by spraying with appropriate pesticides.
      • Controlling diseases by spraying with appropriate chemicals/fungiides.
      • Pricking out in case seedlings are overcrowded.
      • Hardening off. 3x1=3mks
  22.                    
    1. Blossom end rot. 1x1=2mks
    2.                
      • excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizers in the early stages of growth.
      • irregular watering. 
      • calcium deficiency in young fruits.
  23.                    
    1. S- cut off drain T gabion 2x ½ =1mk
    2. hold excess water which overflow over the channel. 1x1 =1mk
    3. help to trap the soil particles. - they reduce the speed of run off. 2x ½ =1mk
    4. roof catchment - use of wells - use of weirs and dams - rock catcment - use of ponds 4x ½ = 2mks
  24.                      
    1. French drains. 1mk
    2.                    
      • Use of cambered beds 
      • open ditch method
      • underground drain pipes 
      • pumping
      • tree planting. 4 ½ =2mks
    3.                          
      • improves soil aeration 
      • helps to reduce soil erosion 
      • raises the soil temperature
      • increase soil volume 4x ½ = 2mks
  25.                    
    1.                                 
      1. seedbed preparation
        • clear off the vegetation
        • prepare the seedbed early during the dry season to kill weeds
        • plough deeper to kill perennial weeds
        • harrow the seedbed to a medium tilth
        • plough along the contours to reduce soil erosion
      2. planting of maize
        • plant at the beginning of the rains
        • dry plantimg can also be done two weeks
        • space according to the variety
        • plant 1 or 2 seeds per hole
        • plant at the depth of 2.5 -10cm depending on the soil moisture content
        • plant certified seeds from reliable dealers
        • plant by hand on small scale or used tractor drwan planters in large scale farms
        • use phosphatic fertilizers at a rate of 120kg/ha
      3. field management practices
        • thin the seedlings to one seedlings per hole at 15 cm height
        • gap as soon as possible aftre germination
        • keep the field weed free during early stages
        • weeding can be done manually or using herbicides
        • use selective herbicides such as 2,4-D and MCPA
        • weed 2 to 3 times if done manually
        • topdress with nitrogen fertilisers at knee high
        • control pests such as maize smut, maize streak by rogueing or using approrpiate fungicides
      4. preparation of maize before storage
        • drying done under the sun or by use solar dries
        • seed cleaning (winnowing) to remove foreign particles
        • dusting  - insecticides are applied to prevent attack by storage pests.
    2. methods used to treat seeds in order to break seed dormancy
      • mechanical method
      • hot water treatment
      • soaking water
      • partial burning
  26.                                                        
    1.                      
      • soil erosion - leads to loss of top fertile soil making soil infertile
      • burning vegetation coer - kill soil micro-organisms interfering with decomposition o organic matter abd expose soil to erosive agents
      • leaching - dissolved minerals are carried by the infiltrating water to soil horizons beyond the reach of many plant roots
      • monocropping - utilises only those nutrients needed by that crop which other nutrients remain unused leading to exhaustion of those particular nutrients
      • change in PH - alteration of soil pH affects the activity of soil micro-organisms and availability of soil nutrients
      • continuous cropping - when planted crops are harvested large amounts of nutrients are removed from the soil.
      • accumulation of salts - it is caused by poor drainage and evaporation of soil moisture leading to salinisation
    2. characteristics of nitrogeneous fertilisers
      • highly solublr in  water
      • are hydroscopic i.e absorb moisture from the atmosphere
      • have short residual effect hence applied frequently
      • easily leached hence applied to established crops
      • have a scorching or burning effect on crops
      • are highly volatile under hot conditions
    3. methods of applying inorganic fertiliser
      • placement method - application in planting holes or drills
      • broadcasting  - random scattering on ground
      • foliar spraying  - application of specially formulated solution onto foliage of a crop
      • drip method - fertiliser is dissolved in irrigation water and applied to individual plants via perforated pipes
      • side dressing - placing nitrogenous fertiliser at side of a perennial crops by band or ring application
  27.                        
    1. advantaged of land consolidation 
      • supervision is easily done since the land is one unit
      • farmers acquire a land title deed which can be used to secure loan
      • farmers can plan for long term investments
      • easy to carry out sound farm planning 
      • soil conservation can be done easily
      • farmers save time that could have been used to travelto different pieces of land
      • weeds, pests and diseases control is enhanced
      • easier to receive agricultural extension services
    2. cultural methods of pest control
      • trap cropping - attracts pest away from the main crop for easy killing by spraying pesticides
      • timely planting - enables crops to establish faster and escape pest attack
      • timely harvesting -  prevent attack by field pests 
      • close season - starves pests to death
      • crop rotation - break life cycle of pests
      • planting resistant crop varieties - have defensive mechanisms so as not to be easily attacked
      • field hygiene - rogueing to prevent pest spread 
      • open pruning - creates unfavourable micro-climate to control pests
      • crop nutrition - makes crops to grow strong and increase resistance to pest attack
      • use of clean and healthy planting materials - prevents introduction of pests in the field
      • proper spacing of crops - makes movement of pests difficult, preventing pest spread.
      • irrigation of crops - makes the environment unfavourable for pests 

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