Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2021 Westlands Mock Exams

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Instructions To Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A and B
  • Answer any two questions in section C

SECTION A ( 30 Marks )
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two reasons why docking is an important practice in sheep management. ( 1 mark )
    1. Name the camel breed that is adapted to cooler regions and has wooly body covering. ( ½ mk)
    2. Give one reason why Fresian’s milk is more whitish while jersey milk is yellowish . ( ½ mk)
    3. Give any two uses of litter materials in a poultry house. ( 1 mark )
  3. Give four advantages of using stones as construction materials. ( 2 marks )
  4. Outline three methods of stocking a bee hive. ( 1½ mk)
  5. List four ways in which vaccines are administered to an animal. ( 2 marks )
  6. Give four predisposing factors to livestock diseases. ( 2 marks )
  7. Give four functions of proteins in the body of an animal. ( 2 marks )
  8. Name the tool used together with each of the following tools. ( 1 mark )
    1. Canula
    2. Brace
  9. Differentiate between flushing and steaming up in livestock management. ( 2 marks )
  10. State two roles of drones in a bee colony. ( 1 mark )
  11. State two microbial activities that occur in the rumen. ( 1 mark )
  12. Name three pests bees ( 1½ mk)
  13. Name four mineral deficiency livestock disorders. ( 2 marks )
  14. What do you understand by the term raddling as used in sheep management. ( 1 mark )
  15. Name one intermediate host in life cycle of a liver fluke. ( 1 mark )
  16. Give any three maintenance practices in a green house. ( 1½ mk)
  17. Give two faults of ignition system, ( 1 mark )
  18. Give four conditions that the animal structure should meet in order to help in controlling livestock disease. ( 2 marks )
  19. Give six signs to show that a cow is on heat. ( 3 marks )

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Study the illustration of fences below and answer the questions that follow.
    10 agri west p2q20
    1. Name the type of fences illustrated above. ( 2 marks)
    2. Name the correct tool used in maintenance of fence Y. ( 1 mark
    3. State three advantages that fence Y may have over fence X. ( 3 marks )
  2. The diagram below represents an implement
    10 agri west p2q21
    1. Identify the implement. ( 1 mark )
    2. Name the parts labelled E and F give one function of each. ( 2 marks )
    3. State four maintenance practices carried out on the implement shown in the diagram. ( 4 marks)
  3. The diagram labelled A and B below shows two types of bee hives. Study them carefully and answer the questions
    10 agri west p2q22
    1. Identify the types of beehives A and B. ( 2 marks )
    2. State two advantages of A over B. ( 2 marks )
    3. Give two maintenance practices for the named bee hives. (2 marks )
    4. Give one type of bee that make a colony. ( 1 mark )

SECTION C ( 40 marks )
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Describe eight difference between petrol and diesel tractor engines. ( 8 marks)
    2. Describe the principle of a four stroke (four –cycle) petrol engine. ( 12 marks )
    1. Write short notes on foot and mouth disease under the following sub-headings.
      1. Casual organism ( 1 mark)
      2. Mode of transmission ( 1 mark )
      3. Symptoms of attack ( 4 marks )
      4. Control measures ( 4 marks )
    2. State five importance of keeping livestock healthy ( 5 marks )
    3. State five general method of disease control (5 marks )
    1. Describe the procedure of establishing a fish pond. ( 10 marks )
    2. Describe the life cycle of a three host-tick ( 5 marks )
    3. State five factors affecting digestibility ( 5 marks )

Marking Scheme

    • Even distribution of fat in the body
    • Facilitate easy mating/tupping
    • Reduces incidences of blowfly
    • Minimizes fouling of wool with dung. 2*1/2=1mark
    1. Bacteria 1*1/2=1/2mark
    2. It is due to high butterfat content in jersey milk hence yellowish in colour. 1*1/2=1mark
      • To maintain warmth
      • Absorb moisture 2*1/2=1mark
    • Durable
    • Resistant to weather
    • Resistant to rotting
    • Resistant to fire
    • Resistant to insect damage
    • Use of swarm net
    • Use of a catcher box
    • Placing a hive in a permanent place. 3*1/2=11/2marks
    • By injection
    • Orally through the mouth
    • Inhalation through the nose
    • Through cloaca in poultry
    • Through eye drops
    • Species of the animal
    • Age of the animal
    • Sex of the animal
    • Colour of the animal
    • Breed of the animal
    • Housing of the livestock
    • Nutrition
    • Weather condition
    • Hereditary
    • poor hygiene 4*1/2=2marks
    • Vital for growth and repair of worn out tissues
    • Component of livestock products
    • Synthesis of antibodies
    • Synthesis of hormones and enzymes
    • Production of energy during starvation 4*1/2=2marks
    1. Trochar
    2. Bits 2*1/2=1mark
    • Flushing: Practice of giving extra high quality feeds to an animal around service time.
    • Steaming up: Practice of giving extra high quality feeds to an animal during los period of pregnancy 1*2=2marks
    • Mate the queen for it to lay fertile eggs
    • Keep hive cool by flapping their wings. 2*1/2=1mark
    • Breakdown of carbohydrates and cellulose to carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acids
    • Synthesis of vitamin B complex
    • Fermentation of food
    • Synthesis of amino acids from ammonia gas
    • Breakdown of proteins to peptides, amino acids and ammonia 2*1/2=1mark
    • Ants
    • wax moth
    • Honey badgers
    • Bee louse 3*1/2=11/2marks
    • Piglet anaemia
    • Swayback in lambs
    • Goitre in calves
    • Osteomalacia
    • Milk fever
    • Curled toe paralysis 4*1/2=2marks
  14. Raddling: Practice of fitting the rams with breeding chutes with different colours to identify mated ewes and by which rams 1*1=1mark
  15. Fresh water snail
    • Broken frames should be repaired or replaced
    • Torn polythene materials should be replaced
    • Dirty polythene sheets should be cleaned 3*1/2=11/2marks
    • Sudden stopping
    • Continuous engine running 2*1/2=1mark
    • Well ventilated
    • well spaced
    • Leak proof
    • Easy to clean
    • Well lit
    • Proper drainage
    • Free from drought 4*1/2=2marks
    • Cow become restless
    • Cow mounts on others and allow itself to be mated
    • Rise in body temperature
    • Valva swells and become reddish
    • Bellowing or mooing frequently
    • Clear slimy mucus discharge from valve
    • Drop in milk production in lactating cows
    • Frequent urination 6*1/2=3marks
      • Dead fence/woven wire fence/chain link wire
      • Y-live fence 2*1=2mark
    2. Pruning shears 1*1=1mark
      • Roots firms the soil particles controlling soil erosion.
      • Some plant provide shade to livestock
      • Tall varieties act as wind breaks
      • When trimmed the material can be used as mulch
      • Thorny species like kei apple keep away intruders 3*1=3marks
    1. Disc plough 1*1=1mark
      • E- Rear thrust wheel. Furrow wheel
      • Function: Controls the depth of ploughing and balancing the whole implement
      • F-Concave disc
      • Function: - Cut and invert the furrow slices 4*1/2=2marks
      • All moving parts should be lubricated
      • Replace worn out discs and repair broken discs
      • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
      • For long storage apply old engine oil to prevent rusting
      • Should be cleaned after the day’s work
      • Disc sharpened when blunt 4*1=4marks
      1. Kenya, Top Bar Hive
      2. Box hive 2*1=2marks
      • All broken parts should be repaired or replaced
      • All the cracks should be sealed
      • The grease on the post should be replaced if melted 2*1=2marks
      • Drone
      • Queen
      • Worker bee 1*1=1mark
      Diesel Tractor Engine  Petrol Tractor Engine 
      Uses diesel as fuel   It uses petrol as fuel
      Fuel and air mixed within cylinder  It has a carburetor for mixing petrol and air
      Produces a lot of smoke since diesel is not completely burnt  Produces little smoke because petrol is completely burnt
       Relatively heavy in weight and suited to heavy duties   Light in weight and suited to light duties
      Fuel ignited by compression of air and fuel mixture in the cylinder Fuel ignited by electric spark
      It has an injection pump It has a carburetor
      Produces more power It produces less power
      Has higher compression ratio (16:1) Air has low compression ratio (8:1)
      It uses less fuel per unit area when working Uses more fuel per unit area when working
          Any 8*1=8marks
    2. Principle of operation of a four- stroke petrol engine
      1. Induction
        • Starts when piston is up
        • The piston moves downwards in the cylinder
        • Inlet valve opens
        • Fresh petrol vapour and air mixtures get into the cylinder.
      2. Compression stroke
        • Starts when piston is down
        • Inlet valve is closed
        • The piston moves up the cylinder
        • Fresh fuel mixture is compressed
      3. Power stroke
        • Fresh air fuel mixture is fully compressed
        • A spark is produced at then spark plug
        • Air fuel mixture ignites and expand
        • Pressure created forces the piston down the cylinder
      4. Exhaust stroke
        • Starts when the piston is down
        • Piston moves up the cylinder
        • Exhaust valve opens
        • Gases from the burnt air fuel mixture are expelled through exhaust valve. (12marks)
      1. Causal organism: virus 1*1=1mark
      2. Contaminated feet, forage and manure
        • Sharp rise in the temperature/high fever
        • Blisters in the mouth, hooves and teats which are painful
        • Loss of appetite
        • Inability to move when feet are affected/lameness
        • Profuse salvation
        • Drop in milk production in lactating cows
        • Emaciation 4*1=4marks
        • Vaccination
        • Quarantine is imposed in case of outbreak
        • Slaughter affected animals
        • Disinfecting animal hooves 4*1=4marks
      • They grow faster attaining maturity early
      • Good health gives animals longer economic and productive life.
      • Healthy animals give maximum production or performance.
      • They produce good quality products hence high market value.
      • They will not spread diseases to others and human being.
      • They are economical to keep and spend less money on disease treatment. 5*1=5marks
      • Proper feeding
      • Proper housing and hygiene
      • Proper selection and breeding
      • Routine vaccination
      • Isolation of sick animals
      • Quarantine
      • Mass slaughter of sick animals
      • use of prophylactic drugs
      • Treat sick animals using appropriate drugs
      • Control of vectors
      • Use antiseptics and disinfectants 5*1=5marks
      • Site selection-select a suitable place where water flows gently from the source
      • Site making-After planning the area, pegs are used to mark the channel from the river, the entrance and exit and also the channel to take water back to the river
      • Clearing the land-All vegetation is removed and taken away from the pond area
      • Digging the pond- Soils dung out. Top soil is placed in a particular place as it will be used again. Upper side of pond should be 0.5M deep and lower one 1.5 deep
      • Constructing dyke- It is a wall constructed all around the pond.
        Starting 5marks (10marks)
        Explaining 5 marks
    2. Eggs hatch on the ground and larvae enierges the emerging larvae will attach themselves to the first host; feed on blood, become engorged, drop off to the ground and mount into nymphs. These nymphs will climb on second host, feed on blood, become engorge and drop off to the ground and mounts into adults. The adults climb, onto the third host, feed, become engorged and mate before females drop off to the ground to lay eggs. (5marks)
      • Chemical composition of feed
      • The form in which the feed is offered to the animal
      • The species of the animal
      • Ratio of energy to protein
      • Quantity of feed already present in the digestive system of an animal (5marks)

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