History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Butere Mock Exams 2021

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A – 25 MRKS
Answer all questions from this section.

  1. Give two types of electronic sources of information in history and government. (2mks)
  2. Identify the two first stages of evolution of man. (2mks)
  3. Name the person who invented the seed drill in early agriculture. (1mk)
  4. State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa. (1mk)
  5. Give two roles played by the Tuaregs during the Trans – Saharan trade. (2mks)
  6. State two means of water transport used during the ancient time. (2mks)
  7. Give the main contribution of Isaac Newton during the scientific revolution. (1mk)
  8. Apart from Johannesburg, name one other modern urban centre in Africa. (1mk)
  9. State the main role of the golden stool in the Asante kingdom during the 19th century. (1mk)
  10. Give two political benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the French administration in Senegal. (2mks
  11. Give two economic reasons for the growth of nationalism in Ghana. (2mks)
  12. Give the main reason for the failure of the League of Nations. (1mk)
  13. State main way in which Angola was affected by the cold war. (1mk)
  14. Identify two contributions made by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting Pan – Africanism. (2mks)
  15. State two political causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) between 1960 – 1965. (2mks)
  16. Define the term non – aligned movement (NAM) (1mk)
  17. Name the two houses of parliament in India. (2mks)

SECTION B 45MARKS
Answer any three questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. (5mks)
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Old Stone Age period. (10mks)
  2.      
    1. Give five advantages of human transport. (5mks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport. (10mks)
  3.      
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre. (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10mks)
  4.      
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (1mk)
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique. (10mks)

SECTION C 30MKS
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. Give three ways in which trade contributed to the rise of Asante Empire. (3mks)
    2. Describe the political organisation of the Buganda kingdom. (12mks)
  2.        
    1. state three functions of Emiris during the British administration in Nigeria (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule policy failed in southern Nigeria. (12mks)
  3.      
    1. State three common characteristics of Common Wealth States. (3mks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the Common Wealth nations. (12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A-25 MRKS
(Answer all questions from this section)

  1. Give two types of electronic sources of information in history and government. (2mks)
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Videos
    • Pictures
    • Computers
  2. Identify the two first stages of evolution of man. (2mks)
    • Aegyptopithecus
    • Dryopithecus africanus
  3. Name the person who invented the seed drill in early agriculture. (1mk)
    Jethro Tull
  4. State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa. (1mk)
    • Diffusion theory/one area theory
    • Independent development theory
  5. Give two roles played by the Tuaregs during the Trans – Saharan trade. (2mks)
    • They acted as guards offering protection
    • They acted as guides
    • They maintained accommodation for the traders
    • They provided food and water to traders
    • They acted as interpreters
  6. State two means of water transport used during the ancient time. (2mks)
    • Rafts
    • Oar – driven boats
    • Canoes
    • Sailing ships
  7. Give the main contribution of Isaac Newton during the scientific revolution. (1mk)
    He formulated the gravitational pull.
  8. Apart from Johannesburg, name one other modern urban centre in Africa. (1mk)
    Nairobi/Kampala
  9. State the main role of the golden stool in the Asante kingdom during the 19th century. (1mk)
    Acted as a symbol of unity
  10. Give two political benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the French administration in Senegal. (2mks)
    • They were allowed to send representatives to the French chamber of deputies
    • They were enfranchised (right to vote like the French)
    • They enjoyed the rights of French judicial system
    • They were exempted from arbitrary arrests
  11. Give two economic reasons for the growth of nationalism in Ghana. (2mks)
    • Unemployment of young educated people
    • Exploitation of local resources by foreigners
    • Africans were denied trading licences
    • High prices of cocoa/ consumer goods
  12. Give the main reason for the failure of the League of Nations. (1mk)
    Rearmament of Germany
  13. State main way in which Angola was affected by the cold war. (1mk)
    Civil war
  14. Identify two contributions made by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting Pan – Africanism. (2mks)
    • Attended the 1945 Manchester Pan African Congress
    • Provided venue for pan – African congress/hosted/1958
    • He inspired leaders to unite
    • He encouraged the formation of nationalist movements
    • He co – ordinated plans to decolonize Africans states
    • He supported black civil rights movements in the USA
    • He condemned European domination in Africa
  15. State two political causes of instability in the democratic republic of Congo (DRC) between 1960 – 1965. (2mks)
    • Tribalism/ethnic differences created conflicts among communities
    • Domination of public service/army by foreigners/Belgians
    • Kasai/Katanga secession from the rest of the country
    • The assassination of Patrice Lumumba
    • Ideological differences between leaders divided the country
    • Army mutiny
    • Military coups ie. Mobutu – 1965
    • Rise of dictatorship
    • Interference by UON in the internal affairs of DRC.
  16. Define the term non – aligned movement (NAM) (1mk)
    It is an organization whose members follow a policy of neutralism and independence in international affairs
  17. Name the two houses of parliament in India. (2mks)
    • Lower house/house of the people/lok sabba
    • Upper house/Raiya sabba/council of states

SECTION B 45MARKS
(Answer three questions from this section)

  1.      
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. (5mks)
      • The availability of forests provided possible shelter/habitat/settlement for the early man
      • Africa is centrally located and it is from here that man migrated to other parts of the world/centre of Pangea
      • Compared to other continents, the oldest fossils of man were discovered in Africa/archaeological sites are many
      • The savanna grassland available in the continent provided suitable hunting grounds for the early man.
      • Africa has many rivers/lakes which provided water for use by the early man.
      • Much of African continent has relatively conducive climate which may have favoured human life.
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Old Stone Age period. (10mks)
      • They made simple stone /wooden tools for domestic use/oldowan tools/pebble tools
      • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
      • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
      • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
      • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered/invented
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
      • They lived near rivers and lakes
      • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling
  2.      
    1. Give five advantages of human transport. (5mks)
      • It is readily available
      • It is cheap
      • It is flexible
      • Accidents are rare
      • It is convenient
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport. (10mks)
      • It is expensive to procure, maintain and use aircrafts
      • Construction of air strips requires a lot of resources like land/funds
      • They can only take off and land in designated areas thus inconveniencing the users
      • Aircrafts cannot carry bulky goods as compared to other forms of transport
      • Its operations are affected by weather conditions
      • They cause air pollution
      • Using aircrafts has contributed to terrorism and drug trafficking
      • Use of aircrafts in military has led to massive destruction of property and deaths of many people
      • Accidents involving aircrafts are fatal
      • It requires skilled personnel to manage its operations
  3.      
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre. (5mks)
      • It is transport and communication centre e.g airports, seaports road convergence and railway stations
      • It is a political and administrative centre as the monarchy, prime minister and the cabinet is based there.
      • It is a commercial centre due to availability of banks, car-marts and insurance
      • It is an industrial centre as many industries are situated there like textile industries, iron and steel industries and food processing industries.
      • It is an education centre as many institutions are there some being the oldest in Europe like oxford and Cambridge.
      • It is a historical and cultural centre e.g presence of museums and theatres.
      • It is a residential centre.
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10mks)
      • Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centres which attracted population and later became towns
      • Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centres which later became towns
      • Trading centres that were used for the religious activities developed into towns
      • Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns
      • Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns
      • Places along the coast where ships docked for supplies developed into towns
      • Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns for example Moroe
      • Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into towns
      • Towns developed at cross roads
      • Development of centres of learning e.g Alexandria
  4.      
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (5mk)
      • The arbitrary replacement of the traditional rulers by the Portuguese administrators whenever they felt they were not performing.
      • The massive alienation of African land by the Portuguese who pushed Africans to regions of unfavourable conditions
      • The exposure of Africans to severe economic exploitation like forced labour where the labourers faced mistreatment.
      • The Portuguese imposed many restrictions on Africans, limiting their freedom of expression and intellectual advancement/censorship of the press.
      • The security treated Africans with great cruelty.
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique. (10mks)
      • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique/source of revenue for the Lisbon government.
      • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights/authoritarian regime
      • Portugal had succeeded in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique.
      • There was lack of unity among Africans until 1960’s
      • Illiteracy among Africans in Mozambique/few educated elites to spearhead liberation struggle
      • Many Portuguese settlers had invested heavily in farming , mining , building construction and in other sectors thus were reluctant to leave.
      • Support which the colonial government got from South Africa enabled them to get uranium which they used for making bombs used to suppress African independence riots.

SECTION C 30MKS
(Answer any two questions from this section)

  1.        
    1. Give three ways in which trade contributed to the rise of Asante Empire. (3mks)
      • It enabled her to acquire revenue to sustain the army
      • They got weapons to expand the kingdom
      • The wealth boosted the king’s fame
      • The need for goods to export encouraged the kings to conquer more territories
      • The king used the wealth from trade to reward loyal provincial rulers
    2. Describe the political organization of the Buganda kingdom during the 19th century. (12mks)
      • The Buganda’s political system was based on a centralized monarchy headed by kabaka based in Mengo
      • The office of the Kabaka was hereditary
      • The kabaka was the commander – in –chief of the armed forces/military leader comprising of Katikiro(Prime Minister), Omwanika (Treasurer) and Omulamuzi (Chief Justice)
      • The Bataka were minor chiefs in charge of clans whose duties included guarding the clans land, collected tributes, and maintained law and order.
      • The kingdom had a parliament called Lukiiko made of Kabakas’ nominees and whose functions included advising the Kabaka and making laws for the kingdom.
      • The kingdom was divided into counties called Sazas each headed by a Saza chief.
      • The counties were divided into sub – counties called Gombolola each headed by a Gombolola chief who collected taxes and maintained law and order.
      • The Gombololas were divided into smaller divisions called Miluka each headed by Emiluka chief.
      • Kabaka had powers to appoint and dismiss senior officials.
      • there existed a standing army charged with the responsibility to defending the kingdom and conquering new territories
      • The vassal states were governed by Batongoles who were appointed by the Kabaka.
  2.      
    1. State three functions of Emirs during the British administration in Nigeria. (3mks)
      • They represented the colonial government at the local level in administration.
      • They recruited labour for public works.
      • They collected taxes for the colonial government
      • They communicated the colonial government policies to the people.
      • They tried/heard cases in the local courts.
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule policy failed in southern Nigeria. (12mks)
      • Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of administration.
      • Lack of ethnic homogeneity in the south because there were many tribes hence many languages.
      • The British introduced new ideas e.g forced taxation and taxes.
      • The failure of British administrators to understand how socio-economic and political system of southern Nigeria which was based on the office of the Oba made them give up easily.
      • The educated in S.Nigeria resented the chiefs appointment by the British because they were illiterate.
      • The Obas of Southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation thus when they were given wide ranging powers, the people became discontented.
      • Communication barrier between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
      • The use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g shooting of women during a demonstration against the British administration.
  3.      
    1. State three common characteristics of common wealth states. (3mks)
      • They use English as the official language
      • The English monarch/king/queen is recognized as the head.
      • They cooperate in sports/games
      • They make constitutions/exchange information e.g in finance, trade, science, education and technical assistance.
      • They have close economic ties/the rich nations assist the poor ones with economic/technical aid.
      • Most of the states have similar legal/administration/systems/parliamentary system.
      • They have a common military tradition based on the British one.
      • They have same education system with similar structures
      • They enjoy the same universal adult suffrage.
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the commonwealth nations. (12mks)
      • The commonwealth is dominated by the developed nations. This undermines policies/decisions made by the less developed members
      • Lack of adequate funds to finance its operations since most members are from less developed countries.
      • Political instability/civil wars in many member countries in Africa and Asia has affected the performance of the association in promoting peace/good governance.
      • Members of commonwealth have divided loyalty/lack commitment due to their involvement in other organizations
      • Members of commonwealth withdraw their membership at will and hence affect smooth operation of the association/ideological differences between the member countries/capital.
      • Colonial rivalry
      • Non – existence of an executive authority.
      • Ideological differences
      • Race and colour discrimination
      • Personality differences.

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