History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Baringo North Joint Evaluation Mock Exams 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS 

  • This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL the questions in Section A, three questions from Section B and Two questions from Section C.

SECTION A: (25marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify one electronic source of historical information on history and government. (1 mk)
  2. Name one theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mk).
  3. State one negative effect of Land Enclosure system in British during the agrarian revolution. (1mk)
  4. Identify two types of trade. (2 mks)
  5. State two characteristics of Macadam roads. (2 mks)
  6. Give two examples of print media. (2 mks)
  7. State two ways in which the government of India promoted industrial growth. (2 mks)
  8. Identify two reasons why Cairo town grew along the Nile Valley. (2 mks)
  9. State one function of Asantehene of the Asante Empire in the 19th century. (1 mk)
  10. Identify two main methods used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa in the second half of the 19th century. (2 mks)
  11. State two reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (2mks)
  12. Give the immediate cause of the First World War (1914-1918). (1 mk)
  13. Identify two permanent members of the United Nation security council. (2 mks)
  14. Name one military Organization that was formed during the cold war in Europe. (1 mk)
  15. Identify one country in East Africa that is not a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (1 mk)
  16. Outline the main political challenge the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced since independence. (1mk)
  17. State one way in which one can become a member of the British parliament. (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State five limitations of archaeology as a source of information on history and government. (5 mks)
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the old stone age. (10 mks)
  2.  
    1. State five factors that led to the development of the Trans-Saharan trade. (5 mks)
    2. Explain five results of railway transport in Europe in the 19th century. (10 mks)
  3.  
    1. State three roles of the television as a modern form of communication. (3 mks)
    2. Explain six problems facing Johannesburg as a modern city. (12 mks)
  4.  
    1. State five causes of Maji-Maji rebellion (1905-1907). (5 mks)
    2. Explain five results of the Lozi collaboration with the British. (10mks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State five reasons why Sir Fredrick Lugard used indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. (5 mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why assimilation policy failed in French West Africa. (10 mks)
  2.  
    1. State three principles of Arusha declaration of 1967. (3 mks)
    2. Explain six political challenges the Democratic Republic of Congo has faced since independence. (12mks)
  3.  
    1. State three conditions to be elected as the president of India. (3 mks)
    2. State six functions of British Monarch. (12 mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: (25marks)

  1. Identify one electronic source of historical information on history and government.
    • Microfilms
    • Films
    • Videos
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Computer databases   1x1=1mk
  2. Name one theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mk).
    • Creation theory
    • Evolution/Scientific theory
    • Mythical/Traditional theory  1x1=1mk
  3. State one negative effect of Land Enclosure system in British during the agrarian revolution (1mk)
    • It displaced the poor people/landlessness;
    • It forced the poor people to migrate to urban centres;
    • It increased pauperism/poverty in Europe;
    • It created immigrants to other parts of the world.    1x1=1mk
  4. Identify two types of trade. (2 mks)
    • Local trade
    • Regional trade
    • International trade.   1x1=1mk
  5. State two characteristics of Macadam roads. (2 mks)
    • They were cheap to construct.
    • They were durable
    • They were all-weather.
    • They had smooth surface.
    • They were wide
    • They were straight
    • They were well drained/curved/cumbered   2x1=2mk
  6. Give two examples of print media. (2 mks)
    • Magazines
    • newspapers,
    • scholarly journals
    • Books     2x1=2mks
  7. State two ways in which the government of India promoted industrial growth. (2 mks)
    • Promotion of technical and scientific education
    • Development of heavy industries by the state government plans.
    • Emphasis on industrialization in the five-year development.
    • Encouragement of foreign investment in the country.
    • Restriction on imported goods   2x1=2mks
  8. Identify two reasons why Cairo town grew along the Nile Valley. (2 mks)
    • The Nile River provided water for domestic use and was also a means of transport. This enabled Cairo to grow.
    • Availability of water for irrigation which increased food production and influenced growth of Cairo   2x1=2mks
  9. State one function of Asantehene of the Asante Empire in the 19th century. (1 mk)
    • He was the overall ruler of the Empire   1x1=1mk
  10. Identify two main methods used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa in the second half of the 19th century. (2 mks)
    • Signing treaties
    • Use of force     2x1=2mks
  11. State two reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (2mks)
    • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits.
    • The indigenous/local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.
    • To ensure complete control of the African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration.
    • Existence of the British South African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration
    • The British S. Africa company had enough finance to pay administrative officers.    2x1=2mks
  12. Give the immediate cause of the First World War (1914-1918). (1 mk)
    • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo.   1x1=1mk
  13. Identify two permanent members of the United Nation security council. (2 mks)
    • France
    • China
    • Russia
    • Britain/United Kingdom
    • United States of America    2x1=2
  14. Name one military Organization that was formed during the cold war in Europe.
    • Warsaw Pact
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization   1x1=1mk
  15. Identify one country in East Africa that is not a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
    • Tanzania   1x1=1mk
  16. Outline the main political challenge the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced since independence.
    • Political instability/military coup d’état   1x1=1mk
  17. State one way in which one can become a member of the British parliament. (1 mk)
    • Election of the member to the house of commons
    • Nomination of the person by the Monarch
    • Through inheritance of the house of lords
    • By virtue of office   1x1=1mk

SECTION B 45 marks

  1.  
    1. State five limitations of archaeology as a source of information on history and government.
      • It is an expensive method
      • Its time consuming to organize sites where information can be obtained
      • It is difficult to locate archaeological sites
      • Some of the fragile artifact and fossils are destroyed either by weather or by man during the process of excavation
      • It is limited to the study of ancient period. It cannot be used to study recent history
      • It is not easy to determine the data when events took place, it can only be estimated through carbon dating
      • Archaeological depends on other disciplines like oral traditions, written sources
      • There are few archaeological experts and facilities for interpreting archaeological remains.    5x1=5mks
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the old stone age. (10 mks)
      • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/ oldowan tools
      • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
      • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
      • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
      • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
      • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
      • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling    5x2=10mks
  2.  
    1. State five factors that led to the development of the Trans-Saharan trade.
      • Availability of trade items e.g., gold, salt
      • Existence of local trade in the two regions
      • Existence of strong economy based on agriculture in west Africa
      • There were rich merchants who invested in the trade
      • Availability of capital
      • Presence of oasis
      • Existence of cooperation of between the Berber merchants from the north and the Tuaregs
      • Introduction of camels for transportation
      • There was demand for trade commodities
      • The Tuaregs guided traders across the desert
      • Strong and able leaders provided security to traders e.g., Mansa Musa of Mali and Askia Mohamed of Songhai    5x1=5mks
    2. Explain five results of railway transport in Europe in the 19th century. (10 mks)
      • Promoted movement of people. Promoted social and cultural interaction
      • It has promoted trade as goods, light, heavy and bulky goods are transported effectively to the markets.
      • Industrial expansion
      • Town developed along railway lines in some countries e.g., Mombasa, Kisumu
      • Religious faiths and political ideas spread through railway transport
      • Led to wide spread migration and settlement
      • Agricultural goods are transported more easily and faster hence promoting agriculture
      • Employment of people has been provided by transport
      • Exploitation of natural resources e.g., mining, fisheries and forestry
      • Source of government revenue, hence economic growth
      • It led to environmental pollution through emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide smoke into the atmosphere    6x2=12mks
  3.  
    1. State three roles of the television as a modern form of communication.
      • They are a source of entertainment
      • They educate people on various issues
      • Goods are advertised through TV, hence expand trade   3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six problems facing Johannesburg as a modern city.
      • There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and the poor/Africans.
      • High unemployment rate among the people led to a rise in criminal activities.
      • High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment/loss of lives.
      • There is air/land/water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from the industries.
      • There is inadequate housing which has led to the development of slums/shanties.
      • There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated/despised in work places/mines.
      • It experiences industrial unrest/strikes by the industrial workers.
      • There are inadequate social amenities due to high population.
      • Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles on the road.
      • Congestion due to rural-urban migration.   6x2=mks
  4.  
    1. State five causes of Maji-Maji rebellion (1905-1907).
      • Africans resented the forced labour introduced by the Germans.
      • Africans were forced to grow cotton on infertile land
      • The Africans disliked the rule by Akidas and Jumbes who were foreigners and brutal.
      • The Germans mistreated African rulers/flogging/whipping/harsh German
      • Africans were against the introduction of tax by the Germans
      • The German officials sexually abused the African women.
      • The German officials sexually abused the African women
      • The Africans were inspired by the prophecy of Kinje Kitile Ngwale
      • The Ngoni fought to seek revenge ove the Boma massacre of 1897.
      • Africans wanted to regain their lost independence
      • Germans despised/looked down upon the African way of life./unity of traditions    5x1=5mks
    2. Explain five results of the Lozi collaboration with the British
      • to preserve He collaborated with the British in order to protect his kingdom against the Germans, Portuguese and Boers.
      • He desired western education and civilization and wanted the British to introduce into his country.
      • He wanted the British to protect him from his internal enemies e.g., in 1884, he was faced with an internal rebellion.
      • He also needed protection from the Ndebele and Shona who were a threat to his kingdom.
      • He was also encouraged to collaborate by Khama of Gwato of Botswana land who had already sought British protection against the Boers.
      • Lewanika saw the futility of resisting a strong power like Britain so he chose to collaborate.
      • He was influenced by the European missionaries who had visited earlier to collaborate. (François Coillard).
      • He wanted the economic structure of the people e.g., agriculture, fishing and craft etc.
      • He desired to promote trade in his kingdom.    5x2=10mks

SECTION C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. State five reasons why Sir Fredrick Lugard used indirect rule in Northern Nigeria.
      • European administrators were very few for the vast African territory. Most Europeans were afraid of contracting tropical diseases.
      • It was cost effective as only few officials were employed.
      • It reduced resistance to colonial rule because Africans were ruled by local rulers.
      • Poor transport and communication in Nigeria hindered direct rule in Nigeria.
      • Indirect rule had succeeded in Uganda and India.
      • There was already a well-established system of govt. in northern Nigeria based on Islam.
      • Indirect rule favored the task of tax collection which could be done by the African rulers.
      • The system was familiar in West Africa as a whole because even before the coming of Europeans there existed elaborate local authority local chiefs e.g., African leaders like Mansa Musa ruled their empires through local chiefs.
      • There were communication barriers between the British and the local communities.   5x1=5mks
    2. Explain five reasons why assimilation policy failed in French West Africa.
      • The traditional African rulers didn’t want to lose their authority and influence over the people
      • The people who had converted to Islam resisted the French attempt to convert them to Christianity.
      • There was opposition by the French traders who saw assimilated Africans as a potential threat to their commercial monopoly in the area.
      • The French government found it expensive to implement the policy because they required the building of many schools and employing of teachers.
      • The vastness of the French colonies made it difficult to supervise the implementation of the policy of assimilation / inadequate personnel.
      • The French in France opposed the policy of assimilation because they feared that they would be outnumbered in the chamber of deputies and that the laws would be made by the representatives from the colonies.
      • Racial discrimination against the indigenous people as many French men never accepted them as their equals undermining the policy
      • The system threatened the existence of the French empire/ undermined colonialism (economic exploitation).
      • The missionary school’s system undermined the policy as they were only interested in converting Africans into Christianity.
      • The rise of nationalism made Africans condemn the policy because they believed there was no culture which was superior to the other.
      • The conditions set up to attain French civilization were difficult e.g. military service.
      • There were centralized African communities whose cultures were intact and they were not ready to abandon them/ didn’t want the French to interfere with their culture.    5x2=10mks
  2.  
    1. State three principles of Arusha declaration of 1967
      • Self-reliance
      • Nationalization of the main means of production
      • Ujamaa/socialism policy
      • Human equality/non-discrimination    3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six political challenges the Democratic Republic of Congo has faced since independence.
      • Political upheavals from ideological differences, tribalism and colonial hangovers.
      • Ethnicity made it difficult for the government to achieve national unity due to tribal political groupings
      • Belgian administration retained high ranks in the army and civil service which made it impossible for Africans to be independent under African administration.
      • Secession of Katanga and Kasai regions weakened the country.
      • The foreigners in Congo turned to the former colonialists for support hence undermining Congo’s independence.
      • The 1960 Sept. sacking of Lumumba by President Kasavubu, his arrest and later on assassination made the country to almost disintegrate
      • Between 1960-64, the UN and Belgium interfered a lot with the country’s internal affairs.
      • When Mobutu took over, there was a shift from democracy to military dictatorship e.g. one party system. Government critics were arrested and tortured e.g. Tshisekedi
      • Between 1977 to 1978, there was the Shaba rebellion and 200 soldiers died
      • Presence of rebel forces supported by Rwanda and Uganda which put an end to Mobutu’s suppressive rule in 1997
      • Kabila was assassinated in 2001. His successor found it difficult to bring peace into DRC.
      • The relationship between DRC and neighbours has remained tense with accusation and counter accusations by rebel groups opposed to each other.     6x2=12mks
  3.  
    1. State three conditions to be elected as the president of India.
      • One should be a citizen of India
      • The person should be aged 35 years and above
      • The person should qualify for election as a member of the house of the people
      • One should not be a government employee/ not hold any office of profit within the government
      • One must be nominated by a political party.    3x1=3mks
    2. State six functions of British Monarch.
      • The Monarch approves/assents bills before they become laws
      • The monarch approves all appointments to important state of offices
      • The monarch is involved in enacting treaties between government and other countries in relation to foreign policy
      • The monarch summons/prorogues/dissolve parliament in consultation with the prime minister.
      • The monarchy gives consent to all cabinet appointments
      • The Monarchy has powers to pardon people who have been accused of committing various offences.
      • The Monarch appoints bishops/archbishops of the church of England
      • The Monarch advises/Counsels the head of government
      • The monarch confers honours to persons who have rendered distinguished/outstanding.
      • The monarchy is the commander – in chief of the Armed Forces      6x2=12mks

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