History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Mock Exams Set 2

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Questions

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CANDIDATES:

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three questions from section B , and two questions from section C

SECTION A (25marks)) (Answer all questions in this section)

  1. Give two ways in which archaeologists obtain historical information (2mks)
  2. Name the period in history that is associated with microlithic tools (1mk)
  3. Identify tools invented by the Sumerians that facilitated the production of food (2mks)
  4. State two characteristics of regional trade (2mks)
  5. Identify one earliest traditional means of water transport (1mk)
  6. State two disadvantages of wood as a source of energy (2mks)
  7. Give the contribution of Loius Pasteur in the field of medicine (1mk)
  8. Identify the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Meroe (1mk)
  9. State one significance of the of the royal fire by the for Mwene Mutapa kingdom (1mk)
  10. Name the Chartered Company used by the British government to administer her colonies in West Africa (1mk)
  11. What was the main contribution of religion in the MajiMaji uprising of 1905-1907? (1mk)
  12. State two roles of African chiefs in the French system of assimilation in Senegal (2mks)
  13. Apart from African National Congress (ANC) name one other political party that fought for independence in South Africa (1mk)
  14. Give two camps of fighting powers during the Second World War (2mks)
  15. Name any two permanent members of the United Nations (2mks)
  16. State the main political challenge that has faced Democratic Republic of Congo (1mk)
  17. Identify two houses of Congress in United States of America (2mks)

SECTION B 45 MARKS (Answer any three questions in this section)

  1.      
    1. Identify five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved early man’s way of life (5mks)
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Middle Stone Age (10mks)
  2.  
    1. State three contributions of oversee colonies to the expansion European industries in Europe (3mks)
    2. Discuss six problems which the European society faced as a result of industrialization (12mks)
  3.  
    1. Identify three ways in which African collaboration with Europeans hastened colonization of Africa (3mks)
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities (12mks)
  4.   
    1. Give three political developments in South Africa between 1990 and 1991 which led to peaceful introduction of majority rule (3mks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by African Nationalists in their struggle for majority rule in South Africa (12mks)

SECTION C 30MARKS (Answer any two questions in this section )

  1.        
    1. State three functions of Lukiko of Buganda kingdom during pre-colonial period (3mks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period (12mks)
  2.   
    1. Name three co-founders of Pan-African Movement (3mks)
    2. Explain six achievements of Pan-Africanism between 1945 and 1963 (12mks)
  3.  
    1. Give three requirements one has to fulfill in order to contest as a president in India (3mks)
    2. Describe six functions of the Prime Minister of Britain (12mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Give two ways in which archaeologists obtain historical information (2mks)
    • By excavating archaeological sites
    • By dating fossils
    • By recording the findings
  2. Name the period in history that is associated with microlithic tools (1mk)
    • New Stone Age
  3. Identify tools invented by the Sumerians that facilitated the production of food (2mks)
    • Ox-drown plough
    • Invention of wheel
    • Invention of bronze hoes
    • Invention of seed-drill
  4. State two characteristics of regional trade (2mks)
    • It involves large geographical area
    • A large variety of goods are involved
    • Participation of people who specialize mainly in trade as a means of their livelihood
    • Participation of traders who act as middlemen between the producers and buyers
  5. Identify one earliest traditional means of water transport (1mk)
    • Rafts
    • Sailing ships
    • The dug-out canoes
    • Sailing boats/Oar driven boats
  6. State two disadvantages of wood as a source of energy (2mks)
    • Leads to destruction of forests /deforestation
    • It does not produce a lot of heat/energy
    • Smoke from wood pollutes environment
  7. Give the contribution of Loius Pasteur in the field of medicine (1mk)
    • Discovered that some bacteria (microbes) cause diseases
  8. Identify the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Meroe (1mk)
    • Presence of iron ore
  9. State one significance of the of the royal fire by the for Mwene Mutapa kingdom (1mk)
    • Symbolized the authority of the king
    • Relighting the village fire from the village fire was a sign of loyalty to the king
    • Was a symbol of unity
  10. Name the Chartered Company used by the British government to administer her colonies in West Africa (1mk)
    • The Royal Niger Company
  11. What was the main contribution of religion in the MajiMaji uprising of 1905-1907? (1mk)
    • It boosted the morale of African warriors/made them brave
  12. State two roles of African chiefs in the French system of assimilation in Senegal (2mks)
    • They collected taxes
    • They recruited labour for public works
    • They acted as spies for the French colonial government
  13. Apart from African National Congress (ANC) name one other political party that fought for independence in South Africa (1mk)
    • Pan African Congress
    • Inkatha Freedom Party
    • National Front
    • United Democratic Front
  14. Give two camps of fighting powers during the Second World War (2mks)
    • The Allied Powers/Allies
    • The Axis
  15. Name any two permanent members of the United Nations (2mks)
    • United States of America
    • Britain/United Kingdom
    • France
    • Russia
    • China
  16. State the main political challenge that has faced Democratic Republic of Congo (1mk)
    • Political instability/civil wars
  17. Identify two houses of Congress in United States of America (2mks)
    • The House of Representatives
    • The Senate
  18.  
    1. Identify five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved early man’s way of life (5mks)
      • It enabled man walk/faster with long strides
      • Man could use hands to carry out farming activities
      • Man could use hands to defend himself from enemies/attack 5x1=5mks
      • It enabled man to grasp objects more conveniently
      • It enabled man to spot animals/wild fruits from a far distance
      • It enabled man to carry the young ones /do domestic chores
      • It improved man’s ability to make tools and weapons
      • Man could see impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Middle Stone Age (10mks)
      • Man made thin,light and sharp tools and weapons known as Sangoan
      • Man discovered fire and therefore ate cooked food
      • Man wore animal skin, neckless and painted his body
      • Man lived in groups of 50 people and had a leader Any 5x2=10mks
      • Man developed elementary language of communication
      • Man lived in caves to avoid attack by wild animals
      • Man practiced hunting and gathering to obtain food like elephants
  19.      
    1. State three contributions of oversee colonies to the expansion European industries in Europe (3mks)They provided additional market for European
      • industrial goods
      • Thy acted as sources of raw materials/minerals
      • They acted as places for European society to invest their surplus capital 3x1=3mks
    2. Discuss six problems which the European society faced as a result of industrialization (12mks)
      • Rural-urban migration in search of employment
      • Overcrowding put pressure on the available social amenities such as housing, hospitals
      • Increased crime rates and other social ills due to unemployment
      • Poor working conditions exposed workers to accidents
      • Led to exploitation of women and children who were employed as workers
      • Led to environmental degradation due to poor waste disposal to the environment
      • Led to outbreak of diseases due to pollution
      • Led to increased level of unemployment as machines replaced human labour 6x2=3mks
      • Led to social stratification/the gap between the rich and the poor
  20.     
    1. Identify three ways in which African collaboration with Europeans hastened colonization of Africa (3mks)
      • It created disunity among Africans
      • It assisted the Europeans in conquering other communities
      • It encouraged European settlement on African land 3x1=3mks
      • It enabled the Europeans to entrench themselves/establish their control,
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities (12mks)
      • Transport systems such as roads and railways developed in mining and agricultural area
      • Africans were exposed to land alienation as Europeans established settlement
      • Africans were exposed to new policies like forced labour and heavy taxation
      • It weakened African economies/ disrupted African economic activities such as nomadic pastrolism
      • Led to spread of Christianity due to protection offered to the missionaries
      • African benefited from western education, health care
      • European languages were introduced in Africa
      • Led to erosion of African culture and adoption of European culture
      • Led to loss of lives/destruction of properties during wars of resistance
      • Led to decline and abolition of slave trade
      • Led to division of communities such as the Somali in Kenya and Somalia due to the drawing of boundariesNew systems of administrations were
      • introduced in Africa e.g. direct rule, indirect rule
      • Led to collapse of some kingdoms such as Buganda as African rulers lost their authorityLed to the beginning of state formation due to drawing of Use of divide and rule promoted ethnic disunity/warfare among African countriesAfrican lost their independence as the colonial rule was established 6x2=12mks
  21.    
    1. Give three political developments in South Africa between 1990 and 1991 which led to peaceful introduction of majority rule
      • Release of prominent African nationalists such as Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu
      • Allowing Africans to form political parties
      • Relaxation of apartheid laws through constitutional reforms 3x1=3mks
      • The holding of multi-racial election in April, 1994
    2. Explain six challenges faced by African Nationalists in their struggle for majority rule in South Africa (12mks)
      • Some were arrested and detained by the apartheid government eg Nelson Mandela, Sobukwe
      • Some African nationalists such as Steve Biko were killed/exiled/tortured lowering their morale
      • African political parties were banned by the government
      • Pass laws restricted the movement of African nationalists
      • Inadequate funds to run their operations
      • The government banned African newspapers making it difficult to spread their ideas
      • Ideological differences between moderates and radicals divided African nationalists
      • Divide and rule policy employed by the government caused disunity among African nationalists /creation of Bantustans caused disunityThey were access to state-owned media /lack of freedom of press to express their idea
        6x2=12mks
  22.      
    1. State three functions of Lukiko of Buganda kingdom during pre-colonial period (3mks)
      • Advised Kabaka
      • Was the final court of appeal/solved disputes
      • Made laws and debated issues concerning the Kingdom
      • Directed tax collection and planned expenditure
      • Represented the needs of the people to Kabaka
      • Helped Kabaka in the administration of the kingdom 3x1=3mks
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period (12mks)
      • The Shona were ruled by an emperor who had absolute power over the subjects
      • The position of the emperor was hereditary in order to reduce succession disputes
      • The emperor was assisted by officials such as queen mother, the queen sister, the emperor’s nine principal wives, the army commander,
      • The emperor was semi-divine and was a symbol of unity
      • The priests were used as spies and link between the emperor and the people
      • There was an advisory council made up of lesser chiefs who advised the emperor
      • The lesser kings/chiefs headed provinces such as Mbire, Utere and Manyika
      • The provinces were divided into chiefdoms ruled by chiefs
      • There was the royal fire which united the people in the kingdom. The lesser chiefs carri2ed the flame to his chiefdom that kept burning as symbol of national unity
      • There was a standing army which was used for defence and expansion of the kingdom
        Any 6x2=12mks
  23.     
    1. Name three co-founders of Pan-African Movement (3mks)
      • W.E.B Dubois
      • Marcus Garvey
      • George Padmore
      • Booker T. Washington
      • Sylvester Williams 3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six achievements of Pan-Africanism between 1945 and 1963 (12mks)
      • Created a sense of unity/togetherness among people of African descent
      • It encouraged Africans to unite against colonial injustices thereby promoting African nationalism
      • It championed for restoration of African dignity by demanding respect for African values
      • Promoted awareness among Africans on their rights and their status
      • Condemned European domination of Africa eg Mussolini in 1935
      • It appealed on international community to act against apartheid in South Africa
      • Provided a forum where Africans discuss common problems affecting them
      • Led to formation of Organization of African Unity
      • Laid the basis for interest in research for African culture
      • Encouraged the formation of nationalists movements /Gave moral support to African nationalists during the struggle for independence 6x2=12mks
  24.        
    1. Give three requirements one has to fulfill in order to contest as a president in India (3mks)
      • One must be a citizen of India
      • One should be 35 years of age or above
      • One should be qualified to be a member of Lok Sabha /House of the People
      • One must not hold any other office of profit within /should not be an employee of government
      • One must be nominated by a political party 3x1=3mks
    2. Describe six functions of the Prime Minister of Britain (12mks)
      • Appoints and dismisses the Cabinet Ministers with the consent of the Monarch
      • He/she represents Britain in international fora
      • Chairs cabinet meetings
      • He/she oversees the execution/implementation of cabinet decisions by various departments
      • Settles disputes between various government departments
      • He/she is the leader of the party that nominates him/her
      • He/she initiates both domestic and foreign policy
      • He/she is the leader of the House of Commons
      • Recommends to the Monarch the appointment of senior civil servants such as Chief Justice, High Commissioners 6x2=12mks

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