Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (30MARKS)

  1. State four disadvantages of natural mating.  (2marks)
  2. Give two reasons for supplementary feeding of bees  (1mark)
  3. Name any two methods used to identify goats. (1mark)
  4. List three signs of lambing.   (1½marks)
  5. Explain the meaning of cropping as used in fish production.  (1mark)
  6. State two reasons why jersey breed is suitable than Friesian in marginal areas.  (1mark)
  7. State four methods used to control cannibalism in a flock of layers in a deep litter system(2mark)
  8. State two reasons why we have a footbath in a cattle dip. (1mark)
  9. State four uses of solar energy in the farm. (2marks)
  10. List four functions of water in an animal’s body. (2marks) 
  11. State four reasons for controlling livestock diseases. (2marks)
  12. State one importance of guard rails in a farrowing pen. (1mark) 
  13. List two groups of vitamins used in livestock feeding. (1mark)
  14. State the functions of the following farm tools
    Shovel …………………   (½mark) 
    Rubber ring and elastrator ..……………………….    (½mark)
  15. List three control measures for fowl pox disease in poultry (1½mark)
  16. What is a production ration?  (1mark)
  17. State two maintenance practices carried out on slasher. (1mark)
  18. Name the hormone responsible for milk let down (½mark)
  19. List any two chemicals used to treat wood against weather elements. (1mark)
  20. State any four characteristics of exotic breeds of cattle.(2marks)
  21. State three uses of biogas on a farm.(1½marks)                                    
  22. State four practices done to make wooden fence posts last longer.  (2marks)

SECTION B (20mks)

  1. A dairy farmer is required to prepare 100kgs of dairy meal containing 20% DCP (Digestible crude protein). Using the pearsons square method, Calculate the quantity of soya beans 40% DCP and rice 16% DCP the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (5marks)
  2. The following diagrams illustrate some workshop tools. Study them carefully and answer the question that follows.
    1
    1. Identify the tools labeled E and F (2marks)
    2. State the functional advantage tool E has over tool F.  (1marks)
    3. State two maintenance practice carried out on tool E.  (2marks)
  3. Study the diagram below of an egg and use it to answer the questions that follow.
    2
    1. Name the parts labeled B, C, D and F. (2marks)
    2. List any two structural qualities of an egg to be incubated. (2marks)
    3. Give the functions of part labeled E in a fertilized egg (1mark)
  4. The diagram below shows the parts of the digestive system of cattle. Study it and answer the questions that follow. 
    3.png
    1. Name the parts labeled N, P, R and Q.(2marks)
    2. List three microbial activities that take place in part labeled P (3marks)

SECTION C (40MARKS)
ATTEMPT ANY TWO QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. Discuss the preparation of the brooder before the arrival of chicks.(5marks)
    2. Describe the management practices carried out on ewes two weeks before  mating to weaning of lambs (15marks)
  2.    
    1. Outline any eight control measures for ticks.(8marks) 
    2. Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor. (12 marks)
  3.      
    1. Describe the uses of five materials and equipment required during hand milking (10marks)  
    2. Discuss mastitis disease under the following sub –heading
      1. Animals affected (1mark)
      2. Casual organism (1mark)
      3. Predisposing factors  (4marks)
      4. Control and treatment  (4marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.      
    • High chances of inbreeding/inbreeding not easily controlled
    • Possible to transmit breeding diseases
    • Males will need extra pasture to eat that would have been used by the females.
    • Large males can injure small females.
    • A lot of semen is wasted as a single ejaculation produces semen that can serve several cows.
    • It is cumber some and expensive to transport a bull to hot areas to serve cows.
  2.      
    • To maintain the colony
    • To encourages multiplication
    • To supplement what bees get from flowers
  3.    
    • Ear tagging
    • Ear notching
    • tattooing 
  4.      
    • Restlessness and bleating
    • Distended full udder /the udder becomes full and the teats are bright red in colour
    • Slackening of the hip muscles     
  5. This is the removal of fish of  marketable size from the pond                                                  
  6.      
    • Has little pastures requirements
    • An excellent grazer in poor pastures
    • Resistant to tropical diseases 
    • Tolerant to high temperature
    • Can walk for long distance in search of food and water.
  7.      
    • Avoid  bright  light in the house
    • Avoid overcrowding  by  giving  enough  space to the birds
    • provide birds with a well balanced feeds
    • Keep  birds according to age group
    • Control  external parasites
    • Debeak hens which peck  at others
    • Cull perpetual cannibals
    • Keep birds busy by hanging green leaves or vegetables in the house            
  8.      
    • To clean/wash the feet of animals
    • To control foot rot
  9.      
    • Drying farm produce
    • Heating water
    • Cooking
    • Distillation of clean drinking water
    • Generating electricity                                                                                      
  10.        
    • Components of body cells and many body fluids
    • Transportation of nutrient from one part of the body to another
    • Makes cells turgid maintaining the shape of the body cells
    • Used in the biochemical reactions in the body
    • Regulate body temperature.
    • Excretion of waste products from the body
    • Forms parts of the animal products
  11.        
    • Reduce spread of livestock diseases
    • Improves the quality of products
    • Promote faster growth and early maturity
    • Gives maximum production or performance
  12.      
    • Prevent sow from crushing piglets
    • Prevents sow from eating creep feed
  13.      
    • Fat soluble vitamins
    • Water soluble vitamins
  14.      
    • Used for lifting soil and manure
    • Used for castrating, docking or dehorning young animals.
  15.    
    • Vaccination of healthy birds
    • All affected birds should be removed and killed.
    • Observing hygiene in poultry.
  16. This is the daily amount of food given to an animal over and above the maintenance requirement for the purpose of production.
  17.      
    • Repair of broken handle
    • Sharpening of the blunt cutting edge
    • Oiling metallic part to prevent rusting
    • Clean after use
  18. oxytocin              
  19.        
    • Creosote.
    • Tar.
    • Tanex.
  20.      
    • Have no humps.
    • Have low tolerance to high temperatures.
    • Have fast growth rates leading to early maturity.
    • Cannot walk for long distances.                                                       
  21.      
    • For lighting.
    • For cooking.
    • Used in internal combustion engines.
  22.           
    • Proper drying.
    • Chemical treatment.
    • Reinforcing with concrete.
    • Slightly burning of the posts.                  

  23. 4
    Soya beans     4/24 x 100 = 16.67 kgs/ 16.7kgs
    Rice   20/24 x 100= 83.33kgs/83.3kgs                 
  24.      
    1. E - Adjustable spanner
      F -Ring spanner
    2. Tool E can be adjusted to loosen or tighten bolts and nuts of different sizes while tool F can only be used to loosen or tighten bolts and nuts of a specific size. 
    3. Clean after use
      Adjust the jaws to lock after use                                         
  25.      
    1. B – Inner shell membrane
      C – Outer shell membrane
      D – Albumen (egg white)
      F - Chalaza
    2.      
      • Should be fertilized
      • Should be medium sized
      • Should have smooth shells
      • Should be oval in shape
      • Should be free of any cracks in the shell
      • Should not have any abnormalities such as blood spots.
    3. Providing food for developing embryo
  26.      
    1. P – Rumen
      T – Abomasum
      S – Small intestine
      Q – Colon
    2.      
      • Fermentation of food
      • Synthesis of Vitamin B complex and vitamin K
      • Synthesis of amino acids from ammonia gas
      • Breakdown of proteins to peptides, amino acids and ammonia.
      • Breakdown of carbohydrates and cellulose to carbon (iv) oxide and volatile fatty acids.
  27.      
    1.      
      • Brooder should be made ready 2 to 3 days before chicks arrive.
      • Ensure all the equipment are functional.
      • Spread newspapers on the floor of the brooder.
      • Spread some feed on the newspaper and some on the feeders.
      • Clean and disinfect the brooder house and the brooder equipment.
    2.    
      • Flushing 2 to 3 weeks before tupping and continues for 3 weeks after tupping.
      • Crutching to facilitate mating/tupping.
      • Hoof trimming to cut the over grown hooves to facilitate easy movement.
      • Shearing of wool from all over the body of the ewe.
      • Feed the ewes on clean pastures
      • Deworm the ewes 2-3 week before lambing
      • Provide clean drinking water.
      • Provide clean and enough shelter
      • Separation of the ewes from the others after showing signs of lambing.
      • Move the ewes into their individual clean pens to lamb down under supervision
      • Steaming up done during the last weeks of gestation.
      • Observing signs of lambing and assist where necessary.
      • Ensure the mother licks the lamb to ensure that the coat is dry.
      • Ensure that the lambs suckle the colostrum.
      • Rejected &orphaned lambs should be given to a foster mother or fed artificially.
      • Keep lambs and ewes under good and clean pastures.
      • Docking of the lambs should be done within 2 weeks of lambing.
      • Castration of male lambs that are not selected for breeding should be done when 2 weeks old.
      • Introducing creep feeding to lambs at the 6th week
      • Spray/dust to control ectoparasites
      • Deworm the lambs.(ANY 15 POINTS)
  28.    
    1.    
      • By use of the ticks natural enemies/predators
      • Self licking by the animal dislodges the ticks from the body
      • Licking by other animals
      • Burning the infested pastures
      • Interfering with or altering the tick’s environment through ploughing the pasture land or top dressing the pasture using lime.
      • Fencing off the pasture land and farm
      • Starving the ticks to death by carrying out rotational grazing of the use of paddocking system.
      • Handpicking the ticks from livestock and killing them/de-ticking.
      • Use of acaricide/chemical control.
    2.    
      • Engine oil should be checked daily by use of a dip stick and added if the level is low.
      • Fuel level should be checked at the start of everyday’s work and added if necessary.
      • Water level in the radiator should be inspected and if necessary topped up.
      • The level of electrolyte should be checked daily and topped up with distilled water.
      • Tightening loose nuts and bolts.
      • Replacing lost nuts and bolts before day’s work.
      • Grease should be applied by use of grease gun through the nipples.
      • Large sediments from the sediment bowl should be removed.
      • The tyre pressure should be checked every morning before the day’s work by use of pressure gauge.
      • The fan belt tension should be checked to ensure that it reflects between 1.9 cm to 2.5 cm when pushed.
      • The brake shaft bearing should be greased.
  29.      
    • Udder clothes/towels – Provide two towels per cow one for washing and the other one for drying the udder.
    • Filtering pads – Used for straining milk
    • Milking jelly – Smeared on teats after milking to prevent them from cracking.
    • Warm water – For washing the udder before milking in order to remove dirt. It also stimulates the milk let down.
    • Milking Pails / buckets – Used for holding milk during milking
    • Strip cup – Used for checking whether the animal suffer from mastitis.
    • Milk cans/churns – Used to hold milk during storage and transportation
    • Milking stool – Milk man sits on it during milking.
    • Weighing scale – Used to weigh the amount of milk per animal
    • Refrigerator & charcoal coolers – To keep the milk under very low temperatures to prevent it from going bad before being transported to the factory.  
  30.    
    1. All animals with a mammary gland – cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels and horses.
    2. Bacteria.
    3.      
      • Age – older animals are more likely to be infected as compared to younger ones.
      • Stage of lactation period – Animals are more likely to suffer from mastitis at the beginning and at the end of the lactation.
      • Udder attachment – Animals with large loosely hanging udders are more susceptible to mastitis infection
      • Incomplete milking – When milk is left in the teat canal, it acts as a culture media for bacteria
      • Mechanical injuries – wounds on the teats or udder allow micro-organism entry into udder.
      • Poor sanitation – This increases the multiplication of the bacteria causing mastitis.
      • Poor milking technique – This may result in mechanical injury of the teats and weakening of sphincter muscles of the teat.
    4.      
      • Open wounds on the teats should be treated immediately
      • Sharp objects should be removed from grazing and milking areas to prevent injuries.
      • Disinfect  the udder clothes after milking each anima
      • Use of a strip cup to detect mastitis infected cow.
      • Should be milked last and the milk disposed off.
      • Dry cow therapy/ infusion of long acting antibiotics into the flat canal when drying off the cow.
      • Strict cleanliness and use of disinfectants during milking.
      • Using the right milking technique
      • Use of a teat dip on every quarter after every milking.
      • The affected quarter of the udder is emptied of milk and an antibiotic is instilled and left for 

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