Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Mangu High School Mock Exams 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all questions in this section

  1.                    
    1. Identify two products of softwood forests in Canada. (2 marks)
    2. Name three industries which are associated with forestry. (3 marks)
  2.                  
    1. State four advantages of rail over road transport. (4 marks)
    2. Identify one major railway line in Kenya. (1 mark)
  3.                  
    1. Other than Lake Victoria, name two fishing grounds in Uganda. (2 marks) 
    2. State three reasons why Uganda has a larger fish catch than Kenya. (3 marks)
  4.                            
    1. List two factors that have led to the presence of soda ash in Lake Magadi. (2 marks)
    2. State three factors which influence occurrence of a mineral. (3 marks)
  5.                  
    1. State two factors which contribute to a linear settlement pattern. (2 marks)
    2. State three social problems experienced in urban centers. (3 marks) 

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any two other questions from this section

  1. The table below shows four principal crops produced in Kenya in the years 2000 and 2001. Use it to answer question (a) and (b). 
     CROP    AMOUNT IN METRIC TONS 
       2000  2001
     Wheat   70,000  130,000 
     Maize  200,000  370,000
     Coffee  98,000  55,000
     Tea  240,000  295,000
         
    Source: Central: Bureau of statistics 
    1.                    
      1. Using a radius of 5cm, draw a simple pie chart based on the 2000 data given above. Show your workings (8 marks) 
      2. State three characteristics of a simple pie chart (3 marks)
    2.                  
      1. Name three Counties in Kenya where tea is grown on a large scale. (3 marks)
      2. State five physical conditions required for the growing of tea in Kenya. (5 marks)
    3. Explain three problems experienced in tea farming in Kenya. (6 marks)
  2.                        
    1. Identify three major minerals mined in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain how the following influence mineral exploitation in Kenya.
      1. Transport. (4 marks)
      2. Quality of ore. (4 marks)
    3. Describe how mining is done by the following methods.
      1. Deep shaft (4 marks)
      2. Solution (4 marks) 
    4. Explain three economic significance of mining to a country. (6 marks)
  3.              
    1.                
      1. Differentiate between Land Reclamation and Land Rehabilitation. (2mks)
      2. Give three methods used in reclaiming land in Kenya. (3mks)
    2.                  
      1. State three benefits of reclaiming Yala swamp. (3mks)
      2. State four physical conditions that favour the establishment of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. (4mks)
    3. Explain three problems faced by rice farmers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. (6mks)
    4.              
      1. What is a polder? (1mk)
      2. Outline the stages involved in reclaiming land from the sea in the Netherlands. (6mks)
  4.                              
    1.                
      1. Distinguish between a fishery and fish farming. (2mks)
      2. Explain how the following factors influence fishing,
        • Cool climate (2 marks)
        • Modern technology  (2 marks)
        • Indented Coast (2 marks)
    2.                
      1. State three traditional fishing methods. (3 marks)
      2. Describe drifting as a method of fishing. (6 marks)
    3. Explain four ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved. (8 marks)
  5.                        
    1.                
      1. Give three reasons why the government of Kenya is encouraging the use of Motorcycle as modes of road transport. (3mks)
      2. State two problems created by the introduction of the mode of transport on (a) (2mks)
    2. Using map outline of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence Sea Way provided below. Answer questions b(i)-b(iv). (4mks)
      Name
      1. Town marked A
      2. Lake marked B
      3. Canal marked C
      4. River marked D
        last last
    3. Explain five problems that hindered navigation through the seaway. (10mks)
    4. Students from a school carried out a field work along Nakuru-Nairobi highway to study the traffic flow.
      1. State three methods they are likely to have used to collect data (3mks) 
      2. Give three methods that they could use to present the data collected (3mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                                    
    1. Identify two products of softwood forests in Canada. (2 marks)
      • Timber 
      • Paper 
      • Fibre boards 
      • Synthetic textiles 
      • Dye
    2. Name three industries which are associated with forestry. (3 marks)
      • Pulp and paper industry .
      • Saw milling
      • Furniture making
      • Construction industry 
      • Tanning 
      • Wood and carving
  2.                
    1. State four advantages of rail over road transport. (4 marks)
      • Rail transport is ideal for transporting very bulky goods while roads have limited carrying capacity 
      • Rail transport is less risky while road is more risky 
      • Rail transport is cheap while road is expensive over long distances 
      • Rail is faster when electrified while road is cheaper
      • Rail is more comfortable means while road is relatively uncomfortable
        Note: Both sides must be stated for response to score
        Any correct first 4 X 1 = 4 marks
    2. Identify one major railway line in Kenya. (1 mark)
      • Kenya - Uganda Railway
        (1 mark)
  3.                
    1. Other than Lake Victoria, name two fishing grounds in Uganda.(2 marks)
      • Lake Kyoga
      • Lake Albert
      • Lake George 
      • River Nile 
      • Lake Edward
      • Lake Kitwe
        Any first correct 2 X 1 = 2 marks
    2. State three reasons why Uganda has a larger fish catch than Kenya. (3 marks) 
      • Uganda has many fishing grounds than Kenya 
      • Most fish breeding grounds in Lake Victoria are in the Ugandan water
      • Ugandan waters are rich in planktons
      • Uganda has a longer fishing history than Kenya
      • Uganda has a wider domestic market than Kenya
        Any forest correct 3 X 1 = 3 marks
  4.                        
    1. List two factors that have led to the presence of soda ash in Lake Magadi. (2 marks) 
      • Extreme temperature and evaporation 
      • Presence of saline underlying rocks 
      • Absence of inlets and outlets
    2. State three factors which influence occurrence of a mineral. (3 marks)
      • Sedimentation / deposition
      • Erosion
      • Vulcancity
      • Evaporation
        Any first correct 3 X 1 = 3 marks
  5.                
    1. State two factors which contribute to a linear settlement pattern.(2 marks)
      • Lines of transport 
      • Natural of relief 
      • Water features 
      • Presence of gazette area e.g. gamepark, fora
        Any first correct 2 X1=2 marks
    2. State three social problems experienced in urban centres. (3 marks)
      • Inadequate housing causing slums
      • Pollution that causes death / disease✓
      • Unemployment that causes crime
      • Inadequate social amenities that cause congestion✔
  6. The table below shows four principal crops produced in Kenya in the years 2000 and 2001. Use it to answer question (a) and (b).
    1.            
      1. Using a radius of 5cm, draw a simple pic chart based on the 2000 data given above. Show your workings
      2. State advantages of using simple pie - chart to represent statistical data. (4 marks)
        • They are easy to read / interpret;
        • They are easy to construct;
        • They good visual impression;
        • They give good comparison of elements presented;
    2.                    
      1. Name two Counties in Kenya where tea is grown on a large scale. (2 marks)
        • ✓ Kericho;
        • ✓ Nyamira;
        • ✓ Murangá;
        • ✓ Kisii;
        • ✓ Kiambu;
      2. State five physical conditions required for the growing of tea in Kenya. (5 marks) 
        • High rainfall;
        • Frost free conditions; 
        • Moderate temperature; 
        • Gentle sloping land; 
        • Volcanic soils;
      3. Explain three problems experienced in tea farming in Kenya. (6 marks)
        • Delayed payments; lowers farmers moral; 
        • Hailstones; lowers production; 
        • Fluctuation of world prices; causes uncertainty among farmers;
        • Pests eg black tea thrip; lowers production; 
        • Shortage of labour; lowers production; 
        • Drought; lowers production;
  7.                    
    1. Identify three major minerals mined in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • Soda ash; 
      • Fluorspar; 
      • Diatomite;
      • Salt; 
      • Limestone;
    2. Explain how the following influence mineral exploitation in Kenya.
      1. Transport. (4 marks)
        • Accessible road network eases minerals transportation to factories / market lowering cost of production; 
        • Inaccessible road network delays transport;
      2. Mode of occurrence, (4 marks)
        • Deep sited minerals are exploited by deep shaft mining which is expensive; 
        • Minerals found near earth's surface exploited by cheap open cast method;
    3. Describe how mining is done by the following methods.
      1. Open Cast (4 marks)
        • Unmarked rock layers are stripped off; 
        • Ore containing mineral is dug if soft or blasted if hard; 
        • Mineral is transported along step-like edges; 
        • Minerals is loaded into trucks and transported to processing plant.
      2. Solution (4 marks)
        • Holes / pipes are sunk into the rocks bearing minerals;
        • Solution is pumped out; 
        • Evaporation done and the minerals picked;
    4. Explain three economic significance of Gold to South Africa.
      • Improvement of roads in the area encouraging trade; 
      • Employment-raises standard of living; 
      • Exported to earn the countries foreign exchange; 
      • Gold is raw materials for industries; 
      • Development of towns and cities which promote trade;
      • Countries get revenue from taxes; 
      • Improved social amenities which raises living standards;
  8.              
    1.                   
      1. Differentiate between Land Reclamation and Land Rehabilitation (2mks)
        • Land reclamation is a process by which unproductive land such as deserts, mash or swamp is converted into a land fit for cultivation while/whereas Land rehabilitation is the restoration of land that has been ruined through man's negligence to its former reputation or good condition.
      2. Give three methods used in reclaiming land in Kenya. (3mks)
        • Irrigating dry land.
        • Draining of swamps 
        • Adding manure to infertile soils 
        • Introducing drought resistant crops 
        • Planting of trees/Afforestaion 
        • Tse-tse fly control
    2.                              
      1. State three benefits that result from reclaiming land. (3mks)
        • It has helped resettle landless people 
        • The scheme has opened productivity in former wasteland 
        • Tenants generate income from horticultural farming which has helped raise their living standards 
        • Creation of employment for the local people.
      2. State four physical conditions that favour the establishment of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. (4mks)
        • Steady supply of water from R. perkerra used for irrigation 
        • Gently sloping land makes water to flow by gravity
        • Presence of clay loam soilswhich is rich in calcium/phosphate enables growth of variety crops 
        • The area was receiving inadequate rainfall which necessitated irrigation
    3. Explain three problems faced by rice farmers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. (6mks)
      • Stagnant pools of water have led to water borne diseases e.g bilharzias and malaria which weakens farmers hence lowering their productivity. 
      • Siltation of canals which calls for regular dredging which is expensive.
      • High rates of evaporation has led to salinisation of soils. 
      • Pest like quelea destroy crop and reduce yield thereby reducing farmers income 
      • Mismanagement of funds has led to delayed payments to farmers.
    4.                      
      1. What is a polder? (1mk)
        • Part of the low lying land covered by sea water is enclosed using strong walls/ring dykes
      2. Outline the stages involved in reclaiming land from the sea in the Netherlands. (6mks)
        • Protective dykes were constructed to enclose the part of the sea to be enclosed
        • Ring canals are constructed to lead water to pumping station. 
        • The water is pumped out using windmills/diesel pumps/electricity pumps. 
        • Ditches are then dug to drain the excess water from the enclosed land 
        • Chemicals are added to the soil to reduce salinity/fresh water is pumped into the enclosed land to reduce sality.
        • Oats, rye and sugar beets are planted to improve the PH of the soil and reduce the land salinity further. 
        • The land is left to dry
        • Land was put to use-agric, settlement, industry
  9.                      
    1.                 
      1. Distinguish between a fishery and fish farming. (2mks)
        • A fishery is an area where fish are reared or caught in numbers while fish farming refers to the rearing of fish in ponds.
      2. Apart from Lake Victoria, name three other inland fishing grounds in Kenya. (3mks)
        • Lakes eg L. Turkana 
        • Rivers eg R. Tana 
        • Reservoirs eg Masinga
      3. Explain how the following factors influence fishing.
        • Cool climate (2 marks)
          • Availability of cool climate encourages the growth of planktons that fish feed on.
        • Modern technology (2 marks)
          • Availability of Modern technology is used in storing processing and building of fishing vessels.
        • Indented Coast (2 marks)
          • The indented / irregular coasts provides protection of fish breeding ground;
    2.                    
      1. State three traditional fishing methods. (3 marks)
        • Harpooning/spearing; 
        • Use of hand line / hook and line;
        • Use of baskets; 
        • Use of barriers traps; 
        • Use of herbs; 
        • Use of gillnets; 
        • Use of lantern;
      2. Describe drifting as a method of fishing. (6 marks)
        • Vertical drift net is immersed in the water; 
        • The upper edge is fed with floats, while the lower edge is fixed with weights; 
        • The edge of the net is tied to the other boat known as a drifter, 
        • The net is lowered a few meters below the water and left to stay for sometime; 
        • The fish swims into the net and get entangled by the gills; 
        • When enough has been caught, they are removed and fish is put in the boat, 
        • The net is then recasted;
    3. Explain four ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved (8 marks)
      • Restocking overfishedto ensure continous supply of fish; 
      • Establishing fish farms to supplement the natural fisheries; 
      • Standaridizing the sizes of nets to control indiscriminate fishing;
      • Restricting fishing to specific seasons outside the fish breeding seasons to allow fish breeds;
      • Licensing specific number of fishermen to control overfishing;
      • Carrying out research on fish breeding and diseases to improve fisheries;
      • Enforcing the international agreement on 320km rule to control fish poaching;
      • Control release of untreated wastes into fisheries to prevent death of fish;
    4.                      
      1. State three reasons why marine fisheries are under developed in Kenya.
        • The continental shelf is narrow
        • ✔Poor transport connections to the fisheries
        • Local fishermen have inadequate capital
        • The coastline is fairly straight
        • The water is too warm for fish breeding
        • The fishermen have poor fishing equipment. 
        • Inadequate skills among the fishermen.
      2. Describe drifting as a fishing method.
        • A drift net hangs vertically in water.
        • Nets are attached to the floats on the upper edge
        • Weights are attached at the bottom
        • When fish swim through nets, they are caught by their gills through the holes.
        • A dory (small boat) turns the net around until it gets to the main ship.
        • The net is hauled into the ship and fish are emptied into the container.
      3. State the three measures which can be undertaken to manage and conserve fisheries in Kenya. (3 marks)
        • The overfished areas are being restocked.
        • Laws are enacted against indiscriminate fishing.
        • Types of nets used for fishing are standardized.
        • Special hatcheries have been set up for artificial fertilization of eggs.
        • Disposal of effluent into fisheries are prohibited. 
        • Research is carried out to improve fishing
    5. Explain two problems facing fish farming in Kenya.
      • Over breeding of fish in ponds and dams leads to competition for food so fish do not grow large in size and therefore fetch low prices. 
      • Most people do not have a tradition of fish eating and hence market for fish is toc
      • Some fingerlings die while they are being transported from hatcheries to the dams and ponds. Fish predators like snakes attack fish in ponds thus reducing them.
      • Inadequate food supply in dry season.
  10.                      
    1.              
      1. Give three reasons why the government of Kenya is encouraging the use of Motorcycle and "Tuk-Tuk" as modes of road transport (3mks)
        • To create more employment 
        • They are a cheap means of transport 
        • To generate revenue from the importation 
        • They are flexible 
        • They are convenient.
      2. State two problems created by the introduction of the modes of transport on (a)(i) (2mks) 
        • They are prone to accidents 
        • They create congestion in towns
        • Are used by thugs hence create more insecurity
        • Some cause a lot of noise 
    2. Using map outline of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence Sea Way provided below. Answer questions b(i)-b(iv). (4mks)
                  Name 
      1. Town marked A - Duluth
      2. Lake marked B - Huron 
      3. Canal marked C -Trent
      4. River marked D -Detroit
    3. Explain five problems that hindered navigation through the seaway (10mks)
      • River St. Claire was short and shaloow hence large vessels could not use it. 
      • Niagra Falls between Lake Errie and Ontario prevented movement of vessels. 
      • Different lakes had different levels making connection difficult 
      • Freezing of water of St. Lawrence river hindered transportation 
      • Many rapids reduced movements
      • Mist and fog at the mouth of River. Hudson
    4. Students from a school carried out a field work along Nakuru-Nairobi highway to study the traffic flow.
      1. State three methods they are likely to have used to collect data (3mks)
        • Tallying 
        • Observation 
        • Counting 
        • Photographing 
        • Note taking 
        • Distributing questionnaire
      2. Give three methods that they could use to present the data collected (3mks)
        • Drawing graphs
        • Use of pie charts
        • Use of statistical tables

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