HISTORY PAPER 1 - KCSE 2019 MOKASA PRE MOCK EXAMINATION

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Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Give the main source of information on unwritten history                            (2 marks)
  2. Give two functions of council of elders among the Akamba.                        (2 marks)
  3. Give two ways of interaction between Kenya societies in the 19th  (2 marks)
  4. Identify the name of the council of elders among Mijikenda community.    (1 mark)
  5. Give one written source that shows contacts between the Kenyan coast and the outside world up to 1200 AD.                (1 mark)
  1. Give two contributions of the early missionaries in the field of education   (2 marks)
  2. Give two characteristics of a good constitution.                                            (2 marks)
  3. Identify two special groups whose rights are protected by Kenyan constitution.                                   (2 marks)
  4. State two reasons why colonial government encouraged settler farming in Kenya                           (2 marks)
  5. Identify two political challenges that Kenyans faced at independence.        (2 marks)
  6. Identify one reason why trade unions were formed in Kenya by 1914.        (1 mark)
  7. State one way of becoming a member of parliament in Kenya.                     (1 mark)
  8. Name the body in charge of election in Kenya.                                             (1 mark)
  9. Identify one demerit of parliamentary supremacy.                                        (1 mark)
  10. Give one factor considered in reviewing electoral boundaries in Kenya.      (1 mark)
  11. Give one importance of the rule of law.                                                         (1 mark)
  12. Give one function of the Senate.                                                                    (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give five reasons why the Maasai collaborated with the British during the colonial period in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the Nandi resisted the British for so long.                     (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. List five reasons why Seyyid Said transferred his capital from Muscat to    (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of plantation agriculture.                                   (10 marks)
  1.  
    1. Identify five results of Devonshire White Paper of 1923.                 (5 marks)
    2. Explain five consequences of colonial land policies in Kenya.         (10 marks)
  1.  
    1. Give five characteristics of early political organizations in Kenya.    (5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems faced by trade union movements in Kenya during colonial period.  (10 marks)                                                                                                           

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give three advantages of unwritten constitution.                             (3 marks)
    2. Describe the features of Kenya’s independence constitution.          (12 marks)
  1.  
    1. Give the composition of the National Security Council in Kenya.    (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Public Service Commission in Kenya.   (12 marks)
  1.  
    1. Identify three principles of Devolution.          (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of County Government in Kenya.                   (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

Section A (25 marks)

  1. Give the main source of information on unwritten history                       (2 marks)
    • Oral traditions
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  1. Give two functions of council of elders among the Akamba.                    (2 marks)
    • They had powers to declare war and make peace/prepared youth for war
    • They presided over religious and other ritual functions
    • They offered advice to the community when need arose
    • They ruled the community / settle disputes
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Give two ways of interaction between Kenya societies in the 19th   (2 marks)
    • Through trade
    • Through warfare
    • Through intermarriage
    • Through common festivals/ceremonies e.g. wrestling/ cultural exchange e.g.            language
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Identify the name of the council of elders among Mijikenda community. (1 mark)
    • Kambi
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  1. Give one written source that shows contacts between the Kenyan coast and the           outside world up to 1200 AD.                                                                      (1 mark)
    • Accounts of Arab travellers like Al Masudi
    • The Christian Topography
    • The Periplus of the Erithrean Sea
    • The Greco Roman documentary
    • Natural history by Pliny
    • Documented Swahili histories and chronicles
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. Give two contributions of the early missionaries in the field of education (2 marks)
    • They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school
    • They taught Africans how to read and write
    • They taught Africans vocational skills
    • They translated the Bible to African languages
    • They wrote books/dictionary
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Give two characteristics of a good constitution.                                         (2 marks)
    • It should contain clear and realistic provisions for its amendments.
    • It should clearly spell out the rights and freedoms that the citizens are entitled to.
    • It should easily respond to changes in the state as soon as they occur.
    • It should address itself in detail to all components of the state.
    • It should clearly define and spell out its contents in a simple language.
    • It should not be too rigid to amend nor too flexible to encourage interfering with      its basic principles.
    • It should take care of all groups in the society.
    • It must clearly state on how resources can be managed and how wealth created is to be evenly distributed.
    • It should provide for a government chosen through free and fair elections.
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Identify two special groups whose rights are protected by Kenyan constitution.  (2 marks)
    • The children
    • Persons with disabilities
    • The youth
    • Minorities and marginalized groups
    • Older members of the society
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. State two reasons why colonial government encouraged settler farming in Kenya        (2 marks)
    • They wanted to make Kenya a white man’s colony so as to form the backbone of     the economy.
    • The colonial government hoped that the settlers would finance administrative          expenses of the colony without involving the British tax payers.
    • The settler economic activities would help the colonial government to pay for construction costs of the railway and maintain it
    • They wanted to use the settlers to control Asian influence in Kenya.
    • The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for British industries.
    • The Kenya highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate       and soils.
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Identify two political challenges that Kenyans faced at independence.   (2 marks)
    • Lack of technocrats to give political direction
    • Illiterate citizens who did not know about their political responsibilities
    • Ethnic rivalries
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  1. Identify one reason why trade unions were not formed in Kenya by 1914. (1 mark)
    • Africans were denied the opportunity by the colonial administrators
    • They had low purchasing power
    • Africans were scattered hence could not come together
    • Wage earning labourers were few
    • There were few elites to provide leadership
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. State one way of becoming a member of parliament in Kenya.               (1 mark)
    • Through election representing constituencies
    • Through nomination
    • Elected women representatives
    • Speaker who is the ex-officio
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. Name the body in charge of election in Kenya.                                          (1 mark)
    • Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  1. Identify one demerit of parliamentary supremacy.                                   (1 mark)
    • It can create instability when its decision conflicts with other organs.
    • It is not effective during emergencies since the head of the     government has to       consult with the Cabinet and the Legislature.
    • It weakens the Executive since it forces the Cabinet’s Secretaries to spend most of their time before the Legislature Committee than dealing with matters of their      
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. Give one factor considered in reviewing electoral boundaries in Kenya.   (1 mark)
    • The size of population,
    • Geographical features and urban centers,
    • Community interests, historical, economic and cultural ties
    • Means of communication.
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. Give one importance of the rule of law.                                                      (1 mark)
    • It protects rights of individuals/ groups
    • It spells out of conduct/ responsibilities among people
    • It promotes fairness in the administration of justice/ equality before the law.
    • It creates peace and order in society
    • It gives direction on what is right or wrong
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  1. Give one function of the Senate in Kenya.                                                 (1 mark)
    • It represents and protects the interests of their Counties and their governments.
    • The Senators takes part in the law making by debating and approving bills             concerning the counties.
    • It determines the allocation of National revenue among the county governments.
    • It oversees expenditures of national revenue allocated to the county governments.
    • It may initiate bills concerning the counties.
    • It keeps check of state officers by considering and determining any resolution to remove      the president or deputy president from office.
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

  1.  
    1. Give five reasons why the Maasai collaborated with the British during the  colonial period in Kenya.                                                                  (5 marks)
      • The rise of the Nandi in 1850’s greatly weakened them so they could not offer any   resistance to the British.
      • In the 19th century, a civil war in their land greatly weakened them.
      • Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeiyo after the death of Mbatian in 1890 diverted their attention from fighting the British.
      • Natural calamities like locust invasion, outbreak of cholera, pneumonia, small         pox and rinderpest affected the Maasai.
      • To seek assistance against the Agikuyu who had sold his people to slavery.
      • Lenana wanted to exert his position as a leader
      • He saw the futility of resisting a strong force after witnessing the Kedong massacre
        Any 5 points @1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the Nandi resisted the British for so long.                          (10 marks)
      • The use of a well-trained, experienced and disciplined army which enabled them     to face the British army with confidence
      • The ability to make their own weapons which ensured constant supply during the    war
      • The forested and hilly terrain which made it difficult for the British soldiers to move swiftly
      • The prevalence of tropical diseases reduced the efficiency of the British army
      • The existence of the foresighted leaders among Nandi encouraged the warriors to   continue fighting
      • The stable economic base enabled the Nandi to sustain their warriors during the     war
      • The use of Guerrilla warfare made it difficult for the British to defeat the Nandi warriors with eases
      • The unity among the Nandi enabled them to sustain the resistance
      • The Nandi got reinforcement from the Kipsigis against the British
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  1.  
    1. List five reasons why Seyyid Said transferred his capital from Muscat to                                                                                                                       (5 marks)
      • To control trade.
      • To establish political control over the Kenyan coast.
      • The coast had pleasant climate compared to Muscat which was hot and dry.
      • The region had fertile soils and adequate fresh water.
      • To assist in ending Portuguese rule/ Zanzibar had been loyal to Oman
      • The region had good natural harbours for ships to anchor.
      • The place offered good defence site from outside attacks
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of plantation agriculture.                               (10 marks)
      • Increased slave trade was realized.
      • Growth of wealthy merchants among the Arabs and Waswahili.
      • New crops were introduced e.g. cloves
      • Development of towns like Mombasa and Malindi.
      • Increase in population as many Arabs came to settle in the place.
      • Development of Agro-based industries.
      • Suffering of slaves as they worked for long hours.
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Identify five results of Devonshire White Paper of 1923.              (5 marks)
      • Kenya was declared an African territory and the interests of Africans became paramount whenever there was racial conflict.
      • It stopped the settlers from declaring their self-independence from Britain
      • The African problems more so that of land and labour were not resolved.
      • The Indians were disappointed as they were not allowed to settle in the white highlands and have political equality with the whites.
      • The Africans were represented in the Legislative Council by a missionary called Dr. Arthur in 1924.
      • The Africans became more enlightened politically and they started forming political groups to address their grievances.
      • The Indians were bitter and even declined to take up their seats in the Legislative Council or in Municipal Councils.
      • The paper intensified rivalry between the settlers and the Indians.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five consequences of colonial land policies in Kenya.     (10 marks)
      • The Africans lost their land even in the reserves.
      • It ended widespread African migration and settlements.
      • Increased overuse of land for agriculture and livestock led to soil erosion as in Machakos and Taita.
      • It led to poverty among the Africans
      • It created a class of landless people in the society.
      • The landlessness caused rural-urban migration
      • Forced labour was introduced to make Africans work for the Europeans.
      • Taxation was introduced to force Africans to provide labour.
      • The Kipande system was introduced by the colonialists.
      • Shifting practices of some African communities were curtailed/.
      • Agricultural production in African areas declined.
      • The land question led to African nationalism in the country
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  1.  
    1. Give five characteristics of early political organizations in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • They were ethnic or tribal based
      • They were urban base
      • They were non militant
      • They were led by missionary educated Africans
      • The demands mainly focused on the welfare of the people
      • They addressed specific grievances affecting the ethnic groups            
      • They had limited membership
      • They were assisted by the Asians with material and legal support
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems faced by trade union movements in Kenya during colonial period. (10 marks)
      • Harassment by the colonial government
      • Lack of experienced leaders/poor leadership
      • Lack of adequate funds
      • Leadership wrangles
      • Mass illiteracy
      • Poor transport and communication
      • Practice of ethnicity within the unions affected their operations
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)                                                                                              

Section C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. Give three advantages of unwritten constitution.                         (3 marks)
      • It is flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances in the society.
      • It is indigenous therefore well suited for a state.
      • It can be changed by parliament though ordinary legislative process.
      • It provides continuity with the nations traditions and values and thus accepted by     the people.
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Describe the features of Kenya’s independence constitution.      (12 marks)
      • A federal government was adopted with six regions each retaining considerable      powers through the central government.
      • The National Assembly was bicameral consisting of the Senate and the House of    
      • It spelt out the powers and responsibilities of central and regional governments.
      • It created the post of the Prime Minister to head the Government.
      • It created the post of the Governor General representing the Queen of England as   the head of state.
      • It safeguarded the interests of the minority groups like the Europeans and Asians.
      • It provided for an independent and impartial judiciary to ensure that justice is
      • It led to the formation of an Independent Electoral Commission that would ensure impartiality and honesty during elections.
      • It provided that the party with majority seats could form the government which        would comprise of the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers.
      • A bill of rights spelling out the fundamental rights and freedoms of all citizens          was included in the constitution.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  1.  
    1. Give the composition of the National Security Council in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • The President;
      • The Deputy President;
      • The Cabinet Secretary responsible for defence;
      • The Cabinet Secretary responsible for foreign affairs;
      • The Cabinet Secretary responsible for internal security;
      • The Attorney-General;
      • The Chief of Kenya Defence Forces;
      • The Director-General of the National Intelligence Service;
      • The Inspector-General of the National Police Service
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Public Service Commission in Kenya.                                                                                                                                  (12 marks)
      • Establishing and abolishing offices in the public service.
      • Appointing persons to hold offices in the public service
      • Disciplining and removing from office public service officers.
      • Promoting and providing remuneration to public service officers.
      • Developing human resource in the public service.
      • Ensuring efficient and effective provision of services by public service officers.
      • Hearing and determining appeals in respect to County Government public
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  1.  
    1. Identify three principles of Devolution.                                          (3 marks)
      • It is based on democratic principles.
      • It is founded on the doctrine of separation of powers.
      • Have a reliable source of revenue to enable it govern and deliver services
      • Ensure gender balance in their representative bodies.
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of County Government in Kenya.              (12 marks)
      • Development of Agriculture in areas of crop and animal husbandry.
      • Development of fisheries through regulation of fishing and fishing activities and       promotion of fish farming.
      • Provision of health services through construction of health facilities, provision of ambulance services and promotion of health care.
      • Regulation of cultural activities through promotion of theatre groups and     licensing of betting casinos
      • Promotion of public health through provision of refuse removal, solid waste            removal and cemeteries.
      • Provision of recreation facilities like sports stadia, county parks and beaches,          social halls and museums.
      • Development and management of County transport through construction of roads, ferries and harbours.
      • Regulation and development of trading activities through provision of trade licenses, markets and trade fairs.
      • Provision and management of pre-primary, vocational education like village           polytechnics and child centers.
      • Environmental management through air, water and noise pollution.
      • Regulating county planning and development through land survey and mapping,     housing, electricity and energy regulation.
      • Regulation of county public works and services like water and sanitation services.
      • Putting in place measurers to control drug usage and access to pornography in the county.
      • Ensuring animal control and welfare e.g. licensing of dogs.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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