History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY
PAPER 1 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a pre-historic site. (2mks)
  2. State two ways in which the migration of the cushites into Kenya affected the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
  3. State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city states along the Kenyan coast before 1500A.D. (1mk)
  4. State two conditions one must fulfil in order to get Kenyan citizenship by registration.(2mks)
  5. Identify one activity that promotes national unity in Kenya. (1mk)
  6. Which constitutional amendment re-introduced multi-party democracy in Kenya. (1mk)
  7. State two ways in which the Bill of Rights protects the interests of the Kenyan youth. (2mks)
  8. State two ways in which construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of Kenya. (2mks)
  9. Name two groups which were involved in the provision of educational services in Kenya during the colonial period. (2mks)
  10. State two types of democracy. (2mks)
  11. Give one reason why the government encouraged settlers to come to Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
  12. What was the main contribution of Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya. (1mk)
  13. Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial government. (1mk)
  14. Identify the political party formed in 1960 to champion the interests of minority groups in Kenya. (1mk)
  15. What was the main reason for the second Lancaster House conference held in 1962.(1mk)
  16. State the main voting system used in Kenya during general elections. (1mk)
  17. Name two branches of the National Police Service in Kenya. (2mks)

SECTION B ANSWER THREE QUESTIONS

  1.          
    1. State five reasons that led to the migration of the Luo from their original homeland to the present day Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Describe five aspects of the social organizations of the Agikuyu in the 19th Century. (10mks)
  2.          
    1. Give three reasons that led to the coming of Arabs to the Kenyan Coast. (3mks)
    2. Explain six effects of Christian Missionary activities in Kenya. (12mks)
  3.      
    1. State five social effects of the Uganda Railway. (5mks)
    2. Explain five ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined the African Economy. (10mks)
  4.    
    1. Give five political contributions by Ronald Ngala. (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors which promoted the growth of African nationalism between (1945-1960). (10mks)

SECTION C ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS

  1.        
    1. Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (3mks)
    2. Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya. (12mks)
  2.         
    1. State five qualifications of a Presidential candidate in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya. (10mks)
  3.      
    1. State five rights of arrested persons in Kenya. (5mks
    2. Explain five rights that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya. (10mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a prehistoric site(2mks)
    • Existence of a collection of artefacts /tectonic forces/erosion
    • Evidence of burial sites/cultivation/fossils /construction
    • Evidence of ruins /settlements/vision
    • Evidence of art /paintings
    • Historical research and documentation
    • Use of experience and skill.

  2. State two ways in which the migrations of the cushites in Kenya affected the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
    • They adopted female circumcision
    • They adopted the taboo against eating fish
    • There was conflict between them
    • They traded with each other.

  3. State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city states along the Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D(1mk)
    • Trade between the coast and the outside world.

  4. State two conditions one must fulfil in order to get Kenyan citizenship by registration(2mks)
    • One must lawfully reside in Kenya continuously for seven years.
    • A child who is not a citizen must be adopted by a Kenyan citizen.
    • A person must be married by a Kenyan citizen for at least seven years.

  5. Identify one activity that promotes national unity in Kenya.(1mks)
    • Agricultural shows /trade fairs.
    • Games and sports / music and drama
    • National holidays

  6. Which constitutional amendment re-introduced multi-party democracy in Kenya.(1mks)
    • The repeal of section 2A

  7. State two ways in which the Bill of Rights protects the interests of the Kenyan youth(2mks)
    • It guarantees them access to relevant education/training
    • It guarantees them freedom to associate
    • It guarantees them access to employment opportunities
    • It protects them against harmful cultural practices/exploitation
    • It guarantees them the freedom to be represented

  8. State two ways in which the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of Kenya.(2mks)
    • It enhanced the transportation of troops /administration
    • It opened up the country to European settlers
    • It led to forceful displacement /loss of land by some communities

  9. Name two groups which were involved in the provision of educational services in Kenya during the colonial period.(2mks)
    • Christian Missionaries
    • The Colonial government
    • Asians/Arabs
    • Africans

  10. State two types of democracy.(2mks)
    • Constitutional/liberal
    • Direct/pure
    • Indirect/representatives

  11. Give one reason why the government encouraged settlers to come to Kenya during the colonial period.(1mk)
    • In order to exploit the agricultural potential of the country
    • To assist in meeting administrative costs/expenses
    • To produce raw materials required for British industries
    • To check the immigration influence of Asians

  12. What was the main contribution of Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya.(1mk)
    • Environmental Conservation/tree planting

  13. Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial government(1mk)
    • Beniah A. Ohanga

  14. Identify the political party formed in 1960 to champion the interests of minority groups in Kenya.(1mk)
    • Kenya African Democratic Union

  15. What was the main reason for the second Lancaster House conference held in 1962.(1mk)
    • To come up with a constitution for independent Kenya.

  16. State the main voting system used in Kenya during general elections.(1mk)
    • The secret ballot

  17. Name two branches of the National Police Service in Kenya.(2mks)
    • The Kenya Police Service
    • The Administration Police Service

SECTION B

  1.        
    1. State five reasons that led to the migration of the Luo from their original homeland to the present day Kenya.(5mks)
      • Due to drought /famine /natural calamities
      • Due to spirit of adventure
      • Due to population pressure
      • Due to internal conflicts/feuds
      • Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics
      • They were searching for better fishing grounds
      • Due to external attacks
      • Need for pasture/water for their livestock

    2. Describe five aspects of the social organization of the Agikuyu in the 19th Century. (10mks)
      • They had a family which was the smallest unit headed by a father/basic social unit
      • They had clans made up of several families who shared a common ancestry
      • They had initiation for boys circumcision and girls clitoridectomy which was a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood
      • They had age set system /Riika which was composed of people initiated at the same time
      • They believed in the existence of one God, Ngai whom they believed to dwell on Mt. Kirinyaga
      • They had diviners who used to interpret Gods messages to the people/Priesthood offer prayers
      • They had medicine men/MunduMugo/Andu Ago whose main role was to cure sick members of the community
      • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they honored by pouring libations so as to appease them
      • Marriage was very important as it assured continuity of clan/polygamous in nature.
  2.                 
    1. Give three reasons that led to the coming of Arabs to the Kenyan coast.(3mks)
      • They came as refugees ,fleeing religious/political persecutions in Arabia
      • They came to establish settlements
      • They wanted to trade/control commercial activities
      • They came to spread Islam
      • They came to explore /spirit of adventure

    2. Explain six effects of Christian Missionary activities in Kenya. (12mks)
      • African culture/practices like polygamy changed with Africans adopting monogamy
      • Western education /civilization spread through opening of schools i.e. Alliance/Maseno which were centers of spread of formal education
      • Christianity spread broadly resulting in some Africans abandoning their traditional religions
      • Mission education created jobs among the educated thus creating gap/differences between those who were schooled and the illiterate
      • They build hospitals/dispensaries which ensured provision of medical service
      • They resulted in development of agricultural/technical skills by training Africans in industrial skills carpentry, masonry/ introduced new farming methods /crops
      • They led to formation of independent churches and schools to accommodate Africans whose children could not be admitted/accepted in mission school
      • They led to abolition of slave trade/establishment of freed slaves centers e.g. Freetown
      • They promoted exploration of East Africa as they discovered mountains lakes, drew maps of the region which assisted explorers
      • They contributed to the promotion of Imperialism as missionaries opened the way for colonialism to come and rule
      • Kenya/the flag followed the cross African representation was boosted as missionaries were allowed to represent their interests in legislative council (LegCo)
      • Translated the bible into local languages
      • Wrote the first Kiswahili dictionary/grammar book
      • Improved transport system by building roads connecting their mission stations.
  3.             
    1. State five social effects of the Uganda railway.(5mks)
      • It speeded up movement of missionaries /administrators into the interior
      • It influenced the development of roads, telecommunications
      • It led to the creation of African reserves
      • It led to development of urban centers
      • It led to the migration of Indian coolies into the country
      • It promoted the interactions of people/movement

    2. Explain five ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African economy during the colonial period.(10mks)
      • Africans were pushed into the infertile land/overcrowded reserves which were less productive for agriculture
      • They created a class of landless people /squatters who settled on settler farms for their labour.
      • They alienated Africans from their lands thereby undermining farming activities.
      • Africans were dispossessed of their lands and therefore could not get title deeds which they could use to access credit loans to develop their lands
      • Taxes/poll/hut tax were introduced which forced Africans to offer their labour on settler farms at the expense of their own
      • African land tenure system was disrupted thereby undermining the traditional economic setup
      • African were pushed to infertile lands thereby lowering their agricultural production
      • Development of classes within the African societies emerged thus the few Africans who could afford to buy land became wealthy
  4.           
    1. Give five political contributions by Ronald Ngala.(5mks)
      • He participated in formation of coalition government in 1962
      • He was a leader of opposition /President of Kenya African Democratic Union(KADU)
      • He was the president of the Coast Regional Association
      • He was a member of African Elected Members Organization (AEMO)
      • He was Minister for labour ,social security and Adult Education
      • He pushed /advocated for/fought for Majimbo system of government

    2.  Explain five factors which promoted the growth of African nationalism between 1945-1963 in Kenya. (10mks)
      • Acquisition of independence by India and Pakistan in 1947 and Ghana encouraged the Kenyan nationalists
      • Ex-servicemen who participated in world wars used their experiences to organize\ lead the independence struggle
      • Trade union movements advocated \ educated workers on their rights \provided for \agitated for independence
      • The Mau mau movement \uprising and its activities hastened the independence as they fought for land rights among their grievances
      • The United Nations 0rganisation after world war 2 in 1945 advocated for granting independence to nations still under colonialism
      • The formation of political parties like KANU and KADU which mobilized Africans against colonial rule
      • The Labour party in Britain was in favor of decolonization of her former colonies inspired the nationalists
      • The Pan-African congress of 1945 encouraged Africans to liberate themselves from colonial rule
      • Africans who had received missionary education became exposed to the ideas of the free world

SECTION C

  1.                
    1. Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenya citizen by birth 3mks
      • If the father or mother of the person is a Kenyan citizen
      • A child found in Kenya who is /appears to be less than eight years of age and whose nationality and parents are not known
      • A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to register to regain Kenyan citizenship

    2. Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya 12mks
      • The right to health care services which are of reasonable standards
      • The right to housing facilities which are accessible and adequate
      • The right to have adequate food which is of acceptable quality
      • The right to regular supply of water which is clean and safe
      • The right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependent
      • The right to accessible formal education in order to promote literacy
      • The right to embrace culture /languages of one’s choice regardless of his\her background
      • The right to a clean environment /sanitation which is free from pollution
  2.                
    1. State five qualifications of a presidential candidate in Kenya 5mks
      • Be of sound mind
      • A Kenyan citizen by birth
      • Not have served for more than two consecutive terms as president
      • Nominated by a political party or is an independent candidate
      • Nominated by at least 2000 voters from each of majority of counties
      • Not have been declared bankrupt by a court of law
      • Abide by the requirements of chapter 6 of the constitution on integrity
      • Must be a registered voter
      • Be qualified to stand for election as an MP

    2. Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya 10mks
      • It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country
      • It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development
      • It approves funds for expenditure by the national government to ensure provision of services
      • It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability /transparency
      • To review the conduct in office of executive in order to check excesses in government
      • To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merit /professionalism of the appointees
      • To approve declaration of war and extension of states of emergency
      • It represents peoples interests through their elected members of parliament
      • Oversight of state organs i.e. supervises and checks state organs ensuring proper and accountable handling of duties
  3.          
    1. State five rights of arrested persons in Kenya 5mks
      • To be informed in a language that he understands the reason for arrest
      • Should be informed of the right to remain silent and the consequences of not remaining silent
      • To communicate with an advocate and other persons whose assistance is necessary
      • Not to be compelled to make any confession / admission that could be used in evidence against the person
      • To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence
      • To be brought before a court as soon as possible but not later than 24 hours
      • To be informed of the reason for detention continuing or to be released
      • To be released on bond or bail on reasonable conditions
      • Not to be remanded in custody for an offence which is punishable by a fine only

    2. Explain five factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya 10mks
      • Lack of impartiality during trials may lead to unfair judgment
      • Censoring judges publicly on decisions made in court may influence the final judgement/political interference
      • Corrupt practices in courts of law may lead to unfair /oppressive decisions
      • Confining suspects in remand for longer periods without presenting them to a court of law for prosecutions
      • Failure to protect the legal rights of the ordinary people when they conflict with the rich and powerful
      • Lack of commitment / inability by the police to carry thorough investigations on suspected criminal activities
      • The inability of ordinary people to meet the costs of prolonged court cases
      • Lack of knowledge regarding legal procedures hence find themselves implicated unfairly
      • Failure of the legal officers to attend to cases promptly due to pressure of work /inadequate legal officers to handle cases
      • Use of outdated colonial laws which do not address current contemporary issues

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