**INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS**

- Answer all the questions in the spaces provided
- All working must be clearly shown
- Take acceleration due to gravity=10N/kg

Density of water=1000kg/m^{3}

Density of mercury=13,600kg/m^{3}

## QUESTIONS

- State the basic law of magnetism. (2 marks)
- The figure below shows how magnets are stored in pairs with keepers at the ends.

Explain how this method helps in retaining magnetism longer. (2 marks)

- The figure below shows a spherical ball placed between 2 wooden blocks and a metre rule.

What is the volume of the ball? (3mks) - A solid weighs 16.5N on the surface of the moon. The force of gravity on the moon is 1.7N/kg. Determine the mass of the solid. (2mks)
- The figure below shows two cylinders containing a liquid and connected with a tight-fitting flexible tube. The cylinders are fitted with air- tight pistons A and B as shown.

What is observed when forces of equal magnitude F, are on the pistons as shown? Explain the observation. (3mks) - A bottle of soda stands on a bench. As the temperature of the surrounding rises the temperature of the bottle also rises. State and explain the effects of this on the stability of the bottle. (3mks)
- Explain how heat loss by:
- Radiation is minimized in a vacuum flask. (1mk)
- Conduction is minimized in a vacuum flask. (1mk)

- The figure below shows part of the main scale of vernier calipers.

Insert the vernier scale to the main scale, to show a reading of 3.62cm. (2mks) - The three springs shown below are identical and have negligible weight. The extension produced on the system of springs is 20cm. Determine the constant of each spring. (3mks)
- An athlete runs at 4m/s from point A to point B and immediately turns and runs back from B to A with a speed of 8m/s. Calculate the average speed of the athlete. (2mks)
- In an experiment to estimate the diameter of an oil molecule, an oil drop of diameter 0.06cm spread over a circular patch whose diameter is 20cm. Determine:-
- The volume of the oil drop (3mks)
- The area of the patch covered by oil. (3mks)
- The diameter of the oil molecule. (2mks)

- State any assumption made in (ii) above. (1mk)
- The figure below shows parts A and B of a glass tube.
- State the part of the tube where the pressure will be lowest when air is blown through the tube. (1mk)
- What is the relationship between the velocity of air and its pressure at any point along the tube AB. (1mk)

- Water flows along a horizontal pipe of cross-section area 35cm
^{2}and constriction of cross-section 5cm^{2}, if the speed of water at the constriction is 2m/s,Calculate the speed in the wide section. (2mks)

- In an experiment to estimate the diameter of an oil molecule, an oil drop of diameter 0.06cm spread over a circular patch whose diameter is 20cm. Determine:-
- State the principle of moments. (2mk)
- A uniform metal strip is 3.0cm wide 0.6cm thick and 100cm long. The density of the metal is 2.7 g/cm
^{3}.- Determine the weight of the metal strip. (3mks)
- The strip is placed on a pivot and kept in equilibrium by forces as shown.

Determine the value of F and R. (4mks)

- Define the centre of gravity of a body (1mk)
- State the factors that affect the stability of a body. (2mks)
- Give any state of equilibrium. (1mk)

- An object of height 10cm is placed 50cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 30cm. By calculation, determine,
- Position of the image (2mks)
- Size of the image. (2mks)
- Calculate the magnification. (2mks)

- The figure below shows a current-carrying conductor AB in a magnetic field.
- Indicate the direction of force F acting on the conductor. (1mark)
- State two factors that determine the magnitude of the force F (2mark)

- A girl standing at a distance claps her hands and hears an echo from a tall building 2 seconds later. Determine how far the building is. (Take the speed of sound in air =340m/s) (2marks)
- State two ways in which one can increase the strength of an electromagnet. (2 marks)
- The figure below shows two mirrors inclined at 60
^{o}to each other.

Complete the ray diagram to show how it travels after striking the two mirrors and find the angle of reflection on each surface. (2marks) - State two defects that occur in a simple cell. Explain how these defects can be minimized (2marks)
- The figure below shows an object placed in front of a concave mirror. By use of correct ray diagram, locate the position of image. (3 marks)
- Define pressure and state its SI units. (2mks)
- State Pascal’s principle. (1mk)
- Give a reason why ink is most likely to ooze out of a pen when one is up an airplane. (1mk)
- The figure below is a simple hydraulic machine used to raise heavy loads.

Calculate:-- The pressure exerted on the oil by the force applied at A. (2mks)
- The load raised at B. (2mks)
- Give two properties which make the oil suitable for use in this machine. (2mks)

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