Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 Mid Term 1 Exams 2021

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SECTION A (30 MARKS)

  1. State four practices that make Agriculture to be considered a science (2mks)
  2. Give two advantages of organic farming (1mk)
  3. State four characteristics of good green manure plants (2mks)
  4. Give 2 branches of crop farming (1mk)
  5. State 2 negative impacts of high temperature. (1mk)
  6. Mention four farming practices that help to improve soil structure. (2mks)
  7. State three factors that have negative impacts on Agriculture
  8. State four aspects of rainfall that affect crop production. (2mks)
  9. State 2 properties of soil that are influenced by the texture (1mk)
  10. Name four human factors that influence efficiency of Agriculture production (2mks)
  11. State four factors that determine the type of irrigation that can be used in a given area. (2mks)
  12. State four disadvantages of using farmyard manure.(2mks)
  13. Give four disadvantages of minimum tillage. (2mks)
  14. Outline two methods used by farmers to harden off seedlings in a nursery bed. (2mks)
  15.  
    1. Name two types of inventories used on the farm for the purpose of record keeping. (1mk)
    2. What is the importance of taking farm inventories? (1mk)
  16. Give two reasons why farmers should establish seedling first in a nursery bed during the growing of cabbages. (1mk)
  17.  
    1. What is vegetative propagation? (1mk)
    2. State the materials used to propagate;
      1. Sisal
      2. Pineapples
      3. Irish potatoes
  18.  
    1. A farmer was advised to apply a fertilizer labeled 18:47:0 on the sack. What do labeled figures stand for? (1½mks)
    2. A farmer was advised to apply 200kg of C.A.N fertilizer per hectare, which top dressing the bean crop C.A.N contains 21% nitrogen. Calculate the amount of nitrogen applied per hectare ( show your working) (1½mks)

SECTION B 20MKS

  1. Study the methods of propagation F, G and H illustrated below and answer the questions that follow.
             illustration on methods of propagation
    1. Identify the methods of propagation illustrated above.(1½mks)
      F
      G
      H
    2. Give two conditions under which H is carried out. (2mks)
    3. Give 3 advantages of using the method of propagation illustrated in G above. (1½mks)
  2. The following diagram shows a method of compost preparations
            diagram on method of compost preparations
    1. Identify the method (1mk)
    2. Give two factors that you should consider when siting the compost pit. (2mks)
    3. Give 2 factors that determine the time the manure would be ready for use in the field. (2mks)
  3.  
    1. List three aspects of light that influence crop growth. (3mks)
    2. The diagram below shows an experiment set up using soil type G, H and J. Observations were made after 24 hrs. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follows.
               experiment on soil type
      1. What is the experiment represented above designed to study? 1mk.
      2. Name the three types of soil G,H and J. (3mks)
      3. What is the characteristics texture of soil type G and J   2mks.
      4. State how a farmer would improve the structure of soil type G.
  4. Explain the meaning of the following practices in crop production.
    1. Chitting (1mk)
    2. Seed dressing (1mk)
    3. Seed inoculation (1mk)
    4. Earthing up (1mk)
    5. roguelling (1mk)

SECTION C 40 MKS

Answer any two questions in this section

  1.  
    1. State and explain the factors considered when determining spacing of crops in the field. (10mks)
    2. Determine the process of chemical water treatment (10mks)
  2.  
    1. What are the uses of farm records? (10mks)
    2. Explain 8 ways in which soil loses fertility. (10mks)
  3. Describe the field production of tomatoes under the following sub-headings
    1. Ecological requirements. (3mks)
    2. Land preparations. (4mks)
    3. Transplanting. (5mks)
    4. Field management practicals. (5mks)
    5. Marketing (3mks)

Marking scheme

  1.  
    • Entomology
    • Agriculture Engineering
    • Soil Science /pedology
    • Pathology
    • Genetics
    • Ecology
      ½ x 4=2mks
  2.  
    • Requires large tracks of land
    • Low capital investment
    • Low labour per unit area
    • Low yields per unit area.
    • Low management skills
      ½ x 2=1mk
  3.  
    • should be able to grow rapidly.
    • highly leafy
    • high nitrogen content/leguminous
    • Faster rate of decomposition.
    • Hard capable of growing in poor soil conditions.
      4 x ½=2mks.
  4.  
    • Field crops
    • Horticulture
      ½ x 2=1mk
  5.  
    • Increases evaporation leading to wilting of crops
    • Increase incidence of disease infection and pest infestation in crops e.g. leaf rust in coffee and aphids in vegetables
    • Reduces quality of some crops eg pyrethrum and tea.
      ½ x 2=1mk
  6.  
    • Application of lime to the soil, application of organic /organic farming.
    • Mulching
    • Minimum tillage
    • Crop rotation
    • Cover cropping
      ½ x4=2mks
  7.  
    • Pests
    • Disease pathogen
    • Parasites
    • Denitrifying bacteria
      ½ x 2=1mk
  8.  
    • Amount of Rainfall
    • Reliability of rain
    • Distribution of rainfall /rainfall pattern
    • Intensity of rainfall
    • Form of rainfall
      ½ x4=2mks
  9.  
    • Aeration /porosity
    • Drainage
    • Water holding capacity
    • Stickiness
      ½ x 2=1mk
  10.  
    • Level of education
    • Health
    • Economy
    • Government policy
    • Transport and communication
    • Cultural practices and religion beliefs
    • Market forces
      ½ x 4=2mks
  11.  
    • Amount of capital
    • Topography
    • Amount of water available
    • Type of soil
    • Type of crop to be irrigated
      ½ x 4=2mks
  12.  
    • Bulky hence costly to transport
    • Laborious to handle
    • Less nutrients per given value
    • Not possible to determine nutrients content
    • Can burn crops if used immediately after it is made.
    • Can be a means of spreading weeds
    • Can labour and spread pests and diseases.
    • Show release of nutrients
      ½ x 4=2mks
  13.  
    • Leads to development of hardpans
    • Leads to build up of soil borne pests and diseases
    • Reduced water infiltration
    • If burning is used, fertility is reduced and it kills some useful soil organisms.
      ½ x 4=2mks
  14.  
    • Gradual reduction in frequency and amount of watering
    • Gradual reduction on shading
    • Gradual reduction on mulching
      ½ x 2=1mk
  15.  
    1.  
      • Permanent goods inventory
      • Consumable goods inventory ½ mks @
    2.  
      • To show the assets of the farm
      • It helps to detect losses or thefts of property on the farm.
        1x1=1mk
  16.  
    • to use less seeds per unit area
    • requires less labour to care for seedlings in a small area
    • Enables one to select vigorously healthy seedlings
    • Gives a farmer a head start in planting hence early maturity of the crop.
    • Many seedlings are produced in a small area
    • Excess seedlings can be sold
  17.  
    1. Vegetative propagation is production of new plants by use of plants parts.
    2.  
      1. sisal-bulbs
      2. Pineapple-crowns suckers
      3. Irish potatoes-stem tubers
  18.  
    1. 18-18% N(Nitrogen)
      46 – 40% P2O5(phosphorous pentacloride)
      0 -0% K2O) (Potassium oxide)
      3x ½ (1 ½ mks)
    2. 21kgN contained in 100kg C.A.N
                   ?          in  200kg C.A.N.suppliers
      21KGN kg x 200kg CAN
              100kg C.A.N.
      =42kg N
      ½ x 3=1 ½ mks
  19.  
    1. F-whip/tongue grafting
      G-tissue culture
      H-marcotting /aerial layering
      3x1=3mks
    2.  
      • Where the branches cannot reach the ground.
      • where the branches can break if bent/woody branch 2x1 =2mks
    3.  
      • To establish pathogen free plants
      • mass production propagation
      • fast
      • Requires less space
        2x 1=2mks
  20.  
    1. Indove /pit method
      1x1=1mk.
    2.  
      • should be in a well drained place
      • should be on the leeward side in relation to the directing the prevailing wind.
      • Should be accessible
      • Located near the farm where the compost will be used
      • Should be in a well sheltered place.
        (2x1=2mks
    3.  
      • The level of management practices during preparation e.g internal and effectiveness in turning.
      • The type of materials used
      • The age of the materials used
        2x1=2mks
  21.  
    1.  
      • light intensity
      • light wavelength
      • Light duration
        3x1=3mks.
    2.  
      1. Soil capillarity 1x1=1mk
      2. G- sandy soil
        H- Loamy soil
        J-Clay soil
        3x1 =3mks
      3. G-Rough and coarse texture
        J-fine texture
        2X1=2mks.
      4. Addition of organic manure-addition of lime
        1x1=1mk
  22.  
    1. Chitting
      • It is induction of sprouting in potato seed tubers (sets)
        1x1=1mk
    2. Seed dressing
      • dusting seed with appropriate chemical to prevent pest and disease attack.
        (1x1=1mk
    3. Seed inoculation
      • practice of introducing the right strain of nitrogen fixing bacteria(rizobrum on the surface of legume seeds prior to planting
        1x1=1mk.
    4. Earthing up
      • Placing a heap of soil around the base of the crop.
        1x1=1mk
    5. Rogueing
      • Removal through uprooting and destruction of plants that are diseased, infested heavy with pests or have undesirable characteristics.
        (1x1=1mk)
  23.  
    1. Factors considered when spacing crops
      • Soil fertility status.-crops can be spaced wider if the soil is infertile and closer of soil is fertile.
      • Soil moisture rainfall in the area – Drier areas require wider spacing than wet areas.
      • Machinery to be used in subsequent farm operations.-A crop whose operation will be given a wider spacing to allow for movement, of machinery that which will be manually transferred.
      • Intended purpose of the crop.- Crops grown as fodder for annual can be spaced c loosely.eg maize for silage is spaced closer than that grown for grains.
      • Growth habit/size/suckering/tilling % of the crop. – P plants that tiller or produce suckers or those that occupy a wide area should be widely spaced. Those that grow upward require closer spacing.
      • Cropping system – whether pure stand or mixed stand. Wider spacing is required for a crop to be interplant than in a pure stand.
      • Height – Shorter crops require narrower spacing than taller crops.
      • Number of spacing per hole- If more seeds are planted per hole the spacing should be wider than fewer or one seed planted per hole.
        Mark any 6 points 1 mark stating 1x6 =6
                                  1 mark explaining 1x6 =6
                                         Total 12 marks
    2. Describe the process of chemical water treatment
      • Stage 1:’ Filtration at the water intake. eater is made to pass through a sense that trap large particles.
      • Stage 2: Softening of water
        The water is made to circulate in a small tank where it is mixed with a soda ash(sodium bicarbonate ate and aluminium sulphate.
        Soda ash softens the water
        Aluminium facilitates coagulation and sedimentation of soil particles
      • Stage 3 : Coagulation, sedimentation aeration bottom a large open tank.
        Water stays here for at least 36 hours to kill bilharzias wormed
        The tank is left open for aeration in order to facilitate filtratiuon.Water passes into filtration tank where all the remaining solid particles are trapped and removed.
        This is facilitated by the tank having layers of different sizes of gravel and sand.
      • Stage 4: Chlorination
        Filtered water enters the chlorination tank where small amounts of chlorine solution are added to kill micro-organisms .The amount t of chlorine is controlled by a dozer.
      • STEP 5. Storage and distribution.
        Treated water is stored in large tanks before being distributed by consumers
        Mark the 5 stages in order
        2 x5= 10 marks
  24.  
    1. Uses of farm records
      • Guide farmers in plan ting and budgeting
      • Show whether the farmers in making profit or loss.
      • Show history of the farm
      • Help to determine a farmers t worth insets
      • Help in sharing of profit or losses in partnerships or cooperation bans
      • Help in comparison of performance of different enterprises in the farm.
      • Help in settling disputes among liars if the farmer dies without a will
      • Help to support insurance claims in the event of death or fire
      • Help to remind farmers about his depts. Laborers so as to pay so as to repay in time
      • Provide labour information such as when paying terminal benefits and pensions and NSSF dues.
      • Help in select ion of breed stock, culling unproductive animals.
      • Help to detect thefts or loss cases on the farm.
      • Help farmers in making sound management decisions
      • Help to pinpoint weakness on the farm business or areas that need improvement or reorganization
    2. Ways in which soil loses fertility
      • Leaching – As more waters moves down the soil horizons it carries along soil nutrients allow the soil profile beyond the reach of the plant roots
      • Soil erosion – Detaching and carrying away of top fertile soil leads to loss of fertile soil
      • Burning of vegetation –This destroys organic matter, beneficial organ isms that breakdown organic matter to realize nutrients are also destroyed.
      • Change in soil ph – Due to prolonged use of acid or basic fertile ph determine the type of micro-organisms present and the availability of certain nutrients to crops.
      • Monocropping- The practice of growing one type of crop in the same place of land for a long time. There is depletion of certain nutrients and from a certain zone in the soil
      • Contour cropping- Crops absorb large amount of nutrients which get lost if they are never replenished back to the soil
      • Accumulation of salts – Under irrigation in semi- arid areas, there is a high evaporation rate leading to accumulation of salts .This causes Salinization and destruct ion soil structure if leads to loss of soil fertility
      • Development of hard pans- These prevents water infiltration into the soil proper development of crop roots.
      • Fixation of nutrients into insoluble farms – Some nutrients become fixed hence are not readily available to crops
        Stating ½ x 5 =5 mrks
        Explaining ½ * 5 = 5 marks
        Total 10 marks
  25. Tomato production
    1. Ecological requirements
      • Rainfall 760 -130 mm per annum moderate rainfall well distributed.
      • Altitude 0-21000mm above sea level /low to medium altitude areas.
      • Soils- deep fertile well drained.
      • SOILM PH – 6-6.5/slightly acidic soils.
      • Temperature- optimum temperature of 21-22 moderate temperature
        1x3 =3 marks
    2. Land preparations
      • Should be done early before the onset of rains
      • Clear the vegetation and remove tree stumps.
      • Plough deeply an d remove all perennial weeds
      • Harrow the land to medium tilth and level it.
      • Prepare planting holes 15cm deep
      • Holes should be spaced at 9M x 0.6 M or 1.0 mx0.5 m depending on variety
      • Apply organic manure/phosphatic fertilizers eg Dsp one tea spoonful per whole 
      • mix the manure or fertilizer well with the soil
        1x4=4mks
    3. Transplanting
      • Transplant when seedlings are 10-15 cm high 4 to 6th the leaf stage pencil thick
      • Transplant on a cool cloudy day late in the afternoon.
      • Water the nursery bed well before transplanting
      • Use a garden trowel to lift the seedling with a ball of soil around the roots
      • Select only healthy and vigorously growing seedlings
      • Water the seedbed planting hole before transplanting the seedlings
      • Pace seedlings in the planting hole at the same depth as they were in the nursery.
      • Apply appropriate insecticide chemical to control soil –borne pests like cutworms.
      • Firm/ compact the soil around the seedlings
      • Mulch
      • Then water the seedlings
        (5pts in order)
        1x 5 =5marks
    4. Field management practices.
      • Carry out timely gapping of seedlings that have died after transplanting.
      • Water regularly, especially during the dry spell.
      • Top dress by 2 split applications using nitrogenous fertilizers.
      • Weed early and regularly.
      • Stake all tall varieties.
      • Prune to remover excess suckers or leaves touching the ground.
      • Control nests using appropriate methods
      • Control diseases like tomato blight by spraying regularly with appropriate chemicals.
        (any 5 ) 1x 5 = 5
    5. Marketing
      • Fresh market fruits should be picked as soon as they ripen.
      • Ripening may be hastened by keeping fruits in cool dry conditions
      • Fruits for canning need to ripen enough for processing.
      • Use large well ventilated crates to transport tomatoes.
      • The fruit should be level with the of the crates to allow piling of crates to avoid damaging the fruits
      • Deliver the fruits to the market without delay the perish ability.
      • Grade tomatoes depending on size, degree of ripeness, freshness
        ( any 3) 1x 3 =3 marks

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1 comment

  • Comment Link Monica chepkorir Sunday, 27 March 2022 13:30 posted by Monica chepkorir

    Describe the coffee production in Kenya from harvesting to marketing

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