History Questions and Answers - Form 3 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022

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  • This paper consists of three questions from section A, B and C
  • Answer all questions in section A, three questions from section B and two from section C
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


  1. State the main sources of information in history and government on Kenyan communities. (1mk)
  2. State two environmental factors that contributed to the migration of Bantu from their original homeland (2mks)
  3. Identify one way of becoming a Kenyan citizen. (1mk)
  4. Give one reason why the British allowed the Imperial British East African Company to administer herpossession. (1mk)
  5. Give two benefits of the Oman rule along the Kenyan coast during the nineteenth century. (2mks)
  6. Highlight two reforms that resulted from Littleton constitution in 1954. (2mks)
  7. State two terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886. (2mks)
  8. Name two operation ports established by the British to enhance political control in central Kenya. (2mks)
  9. State two sources of British constitution. (2mks)
  10. List two features of Romans roads by 1300AD. (2mks)
  11. State one main function of the Royal Fire in Mwene Mtapa kingdom. (1mk)
  12. Name two communes in Senegal where Assimilation was successful. (2mks)
  13. Give the main reason for the convening of Berlin conference of 1880-1884. (1mk)
  14. Give one invention that revolutionized the textile industries in Britain in the 18thcentury. (1mk)
  15. Name the European power that colonized Zimbambwe. (1mk)
  16. Name one community that did not take part in the Majimaji uprising of 1905-1907 in Tanganyika. (1mk)
  17. Identify one treaty signed between the British and Lewanika of Lozi kingdom in the process of collaboration. (1mk)


    1. Mention five Economic activities of the Maasai. (5mks)
    2. Explain five effects of Bantu migration and settlement in Kenya. (10mks)
    1. Identify three factors that led to the growth of towns along the Kenyan coast in the 19th century. (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons for the decline of the Portuguese rule along the East African coast in the 19th century. (12mks)
    1. State five reasons why the Nandi resisted the British rule in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors that enabled the Nandi to resist for long. (10mks)
    1. State three functions of Lukiko in the kingdom of Buganda during pre-colonial period. (3mks)
    2. Describe six factors that led to the growth of Asante kingdom in the 19th century. (12mks)


    1. State three non-violent methods of resolving conflicts. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that promote national unity. (12mks)
    1. State three factors that may lead to revocation of citizenship by registration. (3mks)
    2. Explain six rights enjoyed by arrested persons in Kenya. (12mks)
    1. State three factors influencing the growth of London. (3mks)
    2. Explain six problems facing Johannesburg as an urban centre. (12mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Oral tradition
    • Diseases and infection
    • Drought and famine
    • Floods
    • Unreliable rainfall
    • By birth
    • Registration
    • They had inadequate personnel
    • The company had trading experiences in the region
    • They had inadequate funds for administration
    • Lack of clear policy on the administration of their colonies.
    • Signing of commercial trades with foreign nations
    • Establishment of clove plantation
    • Development of long- distance trade
    • Development of international trade.
    • Africans were allowed to elect representatives to the legislative council.
    • Two Indians and one African acquired executive position.
    • It led to establishment of multi-racial council of ministries.
    • The ban of political parties was lifted.
  7. The sultan Zanzibar was given 16km coastal strip and islands of pale, mafia, lamu, etc.
    • Fort Hall
    • Fort Smith
    • Fort Dagoretti
    • Customs
    • Customs of parliaments
    • Historical documents
    • Precedents
    • Hard and straight roads
    • The roads were built by digging trench 1.5 metres deep which would be packed with heavy stones or rocks.
    • Rough and fine concrete was added to the foundation, then layers of gravel, chalk and cement.
    • The road surface was slightly convex with deep trenches on the sides.
  11. Acted as a symbol of unity.
    • Dakar
    • Rufisque
    • Garee
    • St. Louis
  13. To peacefully divide Africa among European powers.
    • Invention of the flying shuttle
    • Invention of the spinning jenny
    • Invention of water frame
    • Invention of spinning mule.
  15. British
    • Hehe
    • Nyamwezi
    • Chagga
    • Harry Ware Treaty
    • Lochner Treaty
    • Corydan Treaty
      • They gather vegetable, roots and fruits
      • They mainly practiced nomadic pastoralism
      • The Agricultural Maasai practiced cultivation of crops
      • They practiced basket and pottery
      • They also traded with their neighbor.
      • Several crafts were practiced by the Maasai.
      • The Bantu migration led to the spread of iron working to other parts of Kenya e.g Luo borrowed this skill from them
      • It led to increased population in the region what they settled.
      • They increased inter-community conflicts with other groups e.g they fought with the promo at the coast, Maasai in the Rift Valley and Luo near L. Victoria.
      • Trading activities intensified as the Bantus exchanged their iron products for basketry from the Luos.
      • It also increased cultural interactions with other communities.
      • They were intermarried with other communities.
      • It led to displacement of some communities e.g some Eastern Bantus were displaced by the Agikuyu.
      • The coastal cities had able leaders.
      • The spread of Islam along the coast unified them and led to their growth.
      • The development and prosperity of the Indian Ocean trade.
      • The areas where the coastal towns developed were suitable for settlement which attracted people leading to their development.
      • Most of the coastal towns wee islands that could be easily defended hence leading to their growth.
      • Areas where the coastal towns were situated were easily accessible.
      • The areas had good deep natural harbours for easy docking of dhows, this encouraged the settlement.
      • The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the coastal people.
      • Some coastal communities organized a series of revolts against the Portuguese.
      • Trade along the Kenyan coast declined therefore, they found retaining their control over the Kenyan coast a liability.
      • The Portuguese were attacked by the zimba terrorist who looted property and killed people.
      • The coastal Arabs and Swahili obtained support from Turks and Oman Arabs.
      • Delays in reinforcement due to distance.
      • Competition of the other European powers over the control of the coastal trade.
      • Corrupt Portuguese administrators embezzled revenue.
      • The Portuguese were attacked by tropical diseases like malaria.
      • Portugal was a small country and lacked manpower.
      • Portugal was annexed by Spain.
      • The defeat and the capture of fort Jesus by the Oman Arabs brought the Portuguese rule to an end.
      • Nandi pride
      • Nandi’s military superiority
      • Physical appearance of white man
      • Land alienation
      • Kimnyole’s prophecy
      • Need to safeguard independence
      • Nandi unity
      • History of resisting intruders
      • The use of a well trained, experienced and disciplined army which enabled them to face the British army with confidence
      • The ability to make their own weapons which ensured constant supply during the war
      • The forested and hilly terrain which made it difficult for the British soldiers to move swiftly
      • The prevalence of tropical diseases reduced the efficiency of the British army
      • The existence of the foresighted leaders among Nandi encouraged the warriors to continue fighting
      • The stable economic base enabled the Nandi to sustain their warriors during the war
      • The use of Guerrilla warfare made it difficult for the British to defeat the Nandi warriors with ease
      • The unity among the Nandi enabled them to sustain the resistance
      • It advised the Kabaka.
      • It represented the wishes of the people.
      • It assisted in settling disputes/acted as final court of appeal.
      • It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
      • It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
      • It assisted/no general/administration  
      • Tran-Atlantic trade generated a lot of wealth which enabled the empire to prosper
      • It had able/skilled/shrewd rulers who were courageous/development conscious
      • They had a symbol of unity/golden stool which bonded the people together
      • Centralized system of administration ensured stability as there was clear command
      • Strong agricultural base ensured regular food supply leading to growth of population
      • Presence of large/strong army provided defence/expanded the empire through conquest Availability of gold enabled the
      • kingdom to generate wealth that was used for further development.
      • The Odwira Festival brought the leaders/people together thereby making the empire more cohesive.
      • The need to free themselves from the oppressive Denkiyra rule.
      • The unity of the flan speaking people around Kumasi loyoko clan.
      • mediation
      • negotiation/ diplomacy
      • arbitration
      • legislation/ litigation
      • alternative dispute resolution mechanisms/ elders/ use of religious leaders
      • community policing
      • reconciliation 
      • The constitution which unites all Kenyans
      • One government which has three arms legislature, executive and judiciary
      • The Presidency who unifies Kenyans and is the spokesman and the international representative of Kenyans
      • Education, one curriculum, religion, music and drama
      • National language:- Kiswahili unites people from different ethnic communities
      • National activities:- National holidays- Jamhuri, Mashujaa, Madaraka
      • Agricultural and other shows
      • Games and sports
      • Disaster management
      • Mass media
      • Symbols of National Unity: National flag, National anthem, Coat of arms, Public seal
      • Economic growth: Fair distribution of resources, urbanization, employment opportunities, common currency
      • If proved that citizenship was acquired through fraud
      • If discovered that the person was older than eight years when found in Kenya
      • If the nationality or parentage of a person known and reveals that this person was a citizen of another country.
      • has the right to be informed promptly, in language that the person understands, of the reason for the arrest; the right to remain silent; and the consequences of not remaining silent;
      • has the right to remain silent;
      • has the right to communicate with an advocate, and other persons whose assistance is necessary;
      • has the right not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against the person;
      • has the right to be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence;
      • has the right to be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than twenty-four hours after being arrested; or if the twenty-four hours ends outside ordinary court hours, or on a day that is not an ordinary court day, the end of the next court day;
      • has the right at the first court appearance, to be charged or informed of the reason for the detention continuing, or to be released; and to be released on bond or bail, on reasonable conditions, pending a charge or trial, unless there are compelling reasons not to be released.
      • A person shall not be remanded in custody for an offence if the offence is punishable by a fine only or by imprisonment for not more than six months. 
      • Well-developed transport network/ports/railway
      • Shipping activities/presence of port of London
      • Trading activities
      • Industrialization/textile/metal works/ship building
      • Educational activities
      • Cultural activities
      • Religious activities
      • Administrative center
      • Strategic location e.g. Themes
      • Financial activities e.g. banks
      • There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and the poor/Africans.
      • High unemployment rate among the people led to a rise in criminal activities.
      • High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment/loss of lives.
      • There is air/land/water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from the industries.
      • There is inadequate housing which has led to the development of slums/shanties.
      • There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated/despised in work places/mines.
      • It experiences industrial unrest/strikes by the industrial workers.
      • There are inadequate social amenities due to high population.
      • Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles on the road.
      • Congestion due to rural-urban migration.
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