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  1. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  4. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  5. Candidates should answer the questions in English.                                                                                                                         


Answer all questions in this section

  1. State two disadvantages of oral traditions as a source of History and Government. (2mks)
  2. State two circumstances that forced man to start growing crops. (2mks)
  3. State the main mode of transport used during the trans – Saharan trade. (1mks)
  4. What was the contribution of Alexander Graham Bell in the of Science? (1mk)
  5. Identify the form of writing that developed in Egypt as result of development of agriculture. (1mk)
  6. State the main factor that led to emergence of Cairo as an Urban Centres (1mk)
  7. Identify one factor that hinder industrialization in third world countries. (1mk)
  8. Give two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in Southern Nigeria. (2mks) (1x2) =2mks
  9. State two strategic reasons for the scramble and partition of Africa. (2mks)
  10. Give two resolution of the Berlin conference of 1884 to 1885(2mks)
  11. Give two reasons why the league of nations was formed in 1919(2mks)
  12. State one major event that led to the First World War. (1mk)
  13. Identify two structural defects of the organization of African Unity(OAU) that have undermined its activities since 1963(2mks)
  14. Give two reasons why United States of America (U.S.A) did not join the First World war until 1917. (2mks)
  15. State one use of steel(1mk)
  16. What is the main role of the International Criminal Court? (1mk)
  17. Give the main principle that guides non-aligned movement. (1mk)


Answer any three questions from this section in sheet provided.

  1. a) State five impacts of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.(5mks)
    b) Explain the effects of food shortages in third world countries(10mks)
  2. a) Sate five roles of Tuaregs in Trans-Saharan trade?(5mks)
    b)Explain five social effects of Trans-Saharan trade on the people of western Sudan?(2mks)
  1. a) Give the factors that led to the rise of the Baganda Kingdom.(5mks)
    b) Describe the political organization of the Asante?(10mks) 2x5=10mks
  2. a) State five factors which made the Lozi to collaborate with the British (5mks).
    b) Explain five reforms introduced by the German administration in Tanganyika after the MajiMaji rebellion.(10mks)


Answer any two questions from this section

  1. a) State five reasons why the British used indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria(5mks)
    b) Why did the French system assimilation fail(10mks)
  2. a) Give five functions of the security council of the united Nations Organization.(UNO) (5mks)
    b) Describe five benefits for being a member of the common wealth of nations(10mks)
  3. a) Give reasons for the formation of Non-Aligned Movement? (5mks)
    b) Explain five effects of the cold war?(10mks)


  1. –Exaggeration
    -Information may be forgotten
    -Does not provide sequence of events. 1x2=2mks
  1. - Increased population that could not be adequately fed from the natural environment.
    -climate changes such as increased drought threatened mans source of food.
    -competition for food between man and other animals.
    -Hunting and gathering was increasingly becoming very tiresome and unreliable.\
    - At times calamities such as bush five or floods destroyed vegetation or drove away hunted animals.
  1. Animal transport /the camel.
  2. Telephone
  3. Hieroglyphics   1x1=1mk
  4. Trade (between Europe and the Lands of East ) 1x1= 1mk
  5. Long periods of colonization 1x1=1mksany relevant
  6. - Sothern Nigeria lacked contributed administration which could be used to implement the indirect rule.
    -African chiefs feared erosion and loss of their traditional authority/resistance from African rules
    -The African elite resented the British rule
    -Existence of many ethnic groups and religious groups made it difficult to bring to people together under one rule.
    -The use of unpopular African rules e.g. unpopular chiefs/obas made the people reject British rule.(1x2=2mks)
  1. –The e Egyptian questions
    -French activities in Congo and West Africa.
    -The activities of King Leopald II of Belgium.                      1x2=2mks
  1. - Congo river was declared free for navigation ships of all the represented nations.
    -Congo basin was declared natural area in case of war
    -Doctrine of effective occupation was draw ,which required maintenance of occupation army in the claimed area and the occupied power to inform of other signatories of the Berlin act.
  1. To maintain world peace.
  2. Assassination of Arch duke of Australia. (1x1=1mk)
  3. –Lack of executive authority to ensure implementation of policies.
    -Lack of a permanent army to enforce its policies.
    -Lack of financial base leading to inconsistence and adequate finance to carry out its objectives.
  1. –She did not want to get involved in European affairs Moneea doctrine.
    -She feared the war would be fought in America because of German population.
    -America interest had not been intensified with U.S.A. had commercial relations in both sides.
  1. –construction of railway lines ,bridges ,cars ,ships and industrial sector.
    -Making food containers and utensils.
    -reinforcing concrete in buildings and roofing houses 1x1=1mk
  1. –Punishing perpetrators of crimes against humanity.1x1=1mk
  2. Principal of neutrality 1x1=1mk


    1. - Increased food production
      -establishment of permanent settlement
      -growth of trade between communities
      -increased population
      -led to job specialization
      -development of the wheel
      -origin of centralized government and system of law
      -introduction of writing and arithmetic.          1x5=5mks
    2. - loss of life due to famine e.g. in Ethiopia and Nigeria
      -increased human suffering iechildren born of malnourished mother are weak.
      -construct wars and clashes between communities over food.
      -Has led to refugee problems as some people have been made to free to neighboring countries in search of food.
      -Increase in poverty levels .There is bound to be a general increase in poverty among the masses.
      -Economics decline-countries that face food shortages will in turn experience economic decline.
    1. - Acted as tour guides of caravan against hostile deserts communities
      -watered the camels and horses used by traders provided food and accommodation to traders.
      -Protected and maintained oasis.
      -Acted as interpreters between the traders and the local; people.
      -They served as middle man.              (1x5)=5mks
    2. - Berhers and Arabs from North Africa settled in western Sudan and intermarried with local people.
      -The people of western sudan were converted to Islams by traders from North Africa.
      -Islamic learning (education) such as schools university were established in west Africa hence formal education.
      -Introduction Arab architecture to western sudan people.
      -It encourages slave trade which resulted to economic suffering.
      -Arabic culture such as language was introduced to western sudan.
      -The trade created social class to wealth merchant in western Sudan.
    1. - Decline of Bunyoro Kitaro Kingdom
      -Good leadership
      -Cohesiveness /small and easy to administers.
      -Centralization under Kabaka effective control
      -Trade gave them wealth
      -Strong standing army
      -plenty of food due to fertile land and plenty of rainfall.      1x5=5mks
    2. - It was a centralized state
      -The head of state was Asantentehane
      -The leadership was herearchy
      -At its speak,the empire consisted of parts;Kumasi,Amateo and Provincial Asante.
      -Asante states were bound together by the golden stool/other state were headed by Omanhene.
      -Each Omanhene had a black stool symbolizing of power in the state.
      -Celebrated Odwira festival annually as a way of promoting unity.
      -Asanate had a standing army for defense and expansion(2x5=10mks)
    1. - He was influenced by cures Kham of the Nigeria
      -He was influenced by the missionaries
      -He had seen the futile of resisting the British
      -He needed protection from internal enemies e.g. IIIa.
      -He wanted his people to get western education.
      -He wanted protection from external powers eg the Dutch ,the Portuguese
      -He wanted material gain by enganging in trade with the British.
    2. -The German government appointed a new and move understanding governor .Von Rechanberg.
      -The Jembos and Akidas were replaced by indegineous people.
      -Forced labour on settler farms was abolished
      -corporal punishment was outlawed.
      -Better education services were introduced in missionary and government school.
      -Newspapers authority/domination was reduced as Africans became administrators.
      -Kiswahili was accepted as the official language.
      -A colonial department was introduced in german government to look into the affairs of German colonial government in Tanganyika.


    1. - To reduce the administrative costs
      -Lack of enough trained personnel.
      -There existed and already acceptable system of administration through the Emirs and Qadis.
      -Indirect rule had already succeeded in Uganda and India.
      -Poor communication network.       1x5=5mks.
    2. - The Africans were not willing o become Christians.
      -The African were no not able to get the French type of education.
      -The system faced oppositions from Muslims.
      -The French parliamentarians did not want to compare with African for cabinets posts.
      -The African traditional rulers feared they opposed the system .
      -It was expensive to implement due to the vastness of the French empire.
      -The varied African cultures and made if difficult for them to be absorbed into the French culture
    1. - It investigate disputes which are reported.
      -Uses diplomacy and economical sanctions to bring world peace.
      -It advises member states to settle disputes peacefully.
      -It appeals for peace keeping forces from member states.
      -It admits /suspends/expels members from the UNO   5x1=5mks
    2. Developed nations assist poor area in capital and technical aid.
      -Participation in social events for common wealth such as sports eg commonwealth games.
      -Development of democracy in member states eg common wealth election observes.
      -Administrative assistance in exchange programmes in scholarship and student exchange programs.
      -Rights and freedoms of citizens are guarded eg. Nations which dishonor eg nations which dishonour these get expelled.   5x2=10mks
    1. - To safeguard the sovereignated of the members states.
      - Fight for decolonization of developing nations.
      - To work for disarmament of super-powers.
      - To promote economic independence of member.
      - To promote neutrally among member.
      - To discourage military alliance advocate by the super power.
      - To give them an identity to speak with one voice in the united nations programmes.   5x1=5mks
    2. - Undermined international peace and security since super powers struggled to dominate the world.
      -The world was polarized into two blocks, hostility, suspicion and deep created mistrust
      -cold war resulted in development in science and technology
      -A series of crisis or actual wars occurred in Vietnam wars,suez canal crisis of 1956 and Hungarian Revolution.
      -It led to formation of economic and military alliances such as NATO-1949, COMECON-1949,the Narsaw pact 1955 and European Economic union 1957.
      - It led to the spread of capitalist and communist ideologies.
      - It led to formation of non-alignment policy in Asia and Africa.5x2=10mks)
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