Agriculture Paper 1 Questions And Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

  • Answer ALL the questions

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL Questions in the Spaces Provided

  1. State two ways by which wind affects the growth of crops. (1mk)
  2. Name three types of capital used in Agriculture. (1½mks)
  3. List four reasons for primary cultivation. (2mks)
  4. Give four properties of soil that are influenced by its texture. (2mks)
  5. State two reasons for drying grains before storage. (1mk)
  6. List four methods of treating water for domestic use. (2mks)
  7. State four ways by which plant nutrient may be lost from the soil. (2mks)
  8. State four functions of nitrogen in crops. (2mks)
  9. State three ways in which organic mulch helps to conserve water in the soil. (1½mks)
  10. Give four advantages of proper stocking rate in pasture management. (2mks)
  11. Differentiate between thinning and pricking out as used in crop management (1mk)
  12. List three books of account used in the farm (1 ½ mks)
  13. State three cultural measures taken by farmers to control weeds in the field (1 ½ mks)
  14. State three precautions taken when harvesting pyrethrum (1 ½ mks)
  15. Mention four advantages of minimum tillage (2mks)
  16. Name three crop diseases caused by viruses (1 ½ mks)
  17. Outline three examples of joint products in crop production (1 ½ mks)
  18. State three advantages of land fragmentation (1 ½ mks)
  19. Give four advantages of using zero grazing system of grazing (2mks)

SECTION B. (20 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow. The illustrations represent a method of crop propagation.
             F4 Agri PP1 Q20 Opener 2021
    1. Name the crops (s) propagated by illustrations: (1mrk)
      A:…………………………………………………………………………………..
      B:…………………….…………………………………………………………..
    2. Give three factors that promote the rooting of illustration A. (3mrks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates an experiment using garden soil. Study it carefully and answer the question that follow.
             F4 Agri PP1 Q21 Opener 2021
    1. What was the aim of the experiment? (1mrk)
    2. Name the parts labeled C and D. (2mrks)
      C:……………………………………………………………………………………………
      D:……………………………………………………………………………………………….
    3. Name the property of soil being investigated. (1mrk)
  3. The illustration below shows a type of soil erosion. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
              F4 Agri PP1 Q22 Opener 2021
    1. Identify the type of erosion illustrated. (1mrk)
    2. Give two soil factors that influence the rate of soil erosion. (2mrks)
    3. Name one agent of soil erosion. (1mrk)
  4. The illustration below represents a financial document . Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    No: 2004                                           Date: 26/07/2013
    M/S MUHORONI FARMERS STORE
    DR………………ACHEGO FARMERS CO-OP UNION
    BOX 2, AWASI   
     Particular  Quantity  Price per unit  Amount
     Layers mash  20 bags  1,200.00  24,000.00
     Urea  5 bags  3,000.00  15,000.00
     Sorghum seeds  10pkts  300.00  3,000.00
     Delivery details  Total    42,000.00
    Discount - None

    Terms of payment: Cash in 30days upon receipt of goods

    Official Stamp &  signature
      

    1. Identify the document illustrated above. (1mrk)
    2. State two functions of the document. (2mrks)
  5. The diagram below represent a method of manure preparation. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
              F4 Agri PP1 Q24 Opener 2021
    1. Identify the type of manure being prepared. (1mrk)
    2. Name the parts labeled E and F. (1mrk)

SECTION C:
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

  1.  
    1. Outline five activities that may be undertaken in minimum tillage. (5mks)
    2. State the qualities of a good farmer manager. (5mks)
    3. Explain five ways in which farmers may overcome risks and uncertainties in farming business. (10mks)
  2.  
    1. Describe five functions of agricultural marketing. (10mks)
    2. Explain the four types of water erosion. (4mks)
    3. Describe the nursery preparation and establishment in rice production. (6mks)
  3.  
    1. Describe five factors that influence the demand of agricultural products. (10mks)
    2. Outline the different methods of pasture conservation and utilization. (5mks)
    3. Give reasons for raising vegetable seedlings through a nursery. (5mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    • Causes physical damage to crops.
    • Causes faster spread of pests / weeds / diseases.
    • Cold wind cause stress to crops.
    • Encourages transpiration hence increased water and mineral uptake.
    • Help in pollination. (2 x ½ = 1mk)
  2.  
    • Working capital.
    • Liquid capital.
    • Durable capital / fixed capital. (3 x ½ = 1½mks)
  3.  
    • To kill weeds.
    • Bury crop residues / organic matter into the soil.
    • Loosen the soil / improve soil aeration / easy root penetration.
    • To control soil borne pests or diseases.
    • To make subsequent operation easier. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  4.  
    • Aeration / porosity.
    • Drainage.
    • Water holding capacity / permeability / capillarity.
    • Stickiness / consistency.
    • Cation exchange capacity / availability of nutrients. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  5.  
    • To prevent germination / sprouting during storage.
    • To reduce insect / pest attack rej. rodent / rat attack.
    • To reduce fungal attack / rotting / bacterial attack. (2 x ½ = 1mk)
  6.  
    • Boiling water.
    • Chemical treatment / chlorination.
    • Filtration.
    • Storage over a period of time / sedimentation.
    • Passing air through water. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  7.  
    • Leaching.
    • Soil erosion.
    • Plant uptake / absorption by crops.
    • Volatilization / burning / denitrification. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  8.  
    • Promotes rapid vegetative growth.
    • Facilitates efficient utilization of P & K.
    • Constituent of chlorophyll molecule.
    • Protein synthesis in growing cops.
    • Improve quality of leaf. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  9.  
    • Reduce run off thus increase water infiltration in the soil.
    • Reduce loss of water through evaporation.
    • Increase amount of water retained in the soil. (3 x ½ = 1½mks)
  10.  
    • Allows adequate time for pasture regeneration.
    • Ensure sufficient supply of pasture.
    • Soil erosion is controlled / soil structure is maintained.
    • Discourages parasite / disease spread. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  11. Thinning is the removal of excess seedlings from a seedbed while pricking out is the removal of excess seedlings from a nursery bed then transferring them to another nursery bed.
    1 x1=1mk
  12.  
    • Books of account
    • Cash book
    • Ledger
    • Journal
    • Inventory ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  13.  Cultural methods of weed control
    • Early planting
    • Mulching
    • Deep ploughing
    • Crop rotation
    • Use of clean implements
    • Use of cover crops
    • Use of clean planting materials ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  14. Precautions observed when harvesting pyrethrum
    • Do not compact flowers
    • Put flowers in wooden baskets
    • Do not pick wet flowers
    • Pick flowers with 2-3 rows of disc florets fully open
    • Deliver flowers to factory within 24hrs of harvesting ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  15. Advantages of minimum tillage
    • Conserves soil moisture
    • Cheaper
    • Maintains soil fertility
    • Saves labour
    • Saves time
    • Maintains soil structure
    • Reduces soil erosion
    • Preserves useful soil organisms ½ x4 =1 2mks
  16. Diseases caused by viruses to crop
    • Maize streak
    • Cassava mosaic
    • Tobacco mosaic
    • Ratoon stunting
    • Citrus tristeza/Greening diseases ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  17. Examples of joint products in crop production
    • Wheat and straw
    • Sugar and molasses
    • Pyrethrum and pyrethrum marc
    • Cotton limit and cotton seeds
    • Copra and coir ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  18. Advantages of land fragmentation
    • Allows diversification of production
    • Spreads production throughout
    • Eases crop rotation
    • Reduces disputes over traditional land ½ x3 =1 ½ mks
  19. Advantages of zero grazing
    • Requires small piece of land
    • Reduces wastage of feeds
    • Higher production
    • Reduces destruction of properties by livestock
    • Quicker accumulation of manure
    • Easy control of parasites and diseases
    • Allows higher stocking rate. ½ x4 =1 ½ mks

SECTION B

  1.  
    1. A = Tea
      B = sugarcane
      2 x ½ = (1mk)
    2.  
      • Oxygen supply
      • Rooting medium
      • Correct relative humidity
      • Suitable temperature
      • Suitable light intensive
      • Leaf area
        3 x 1 = (3mks)
  2.  
    1. To show that soil is made of different sized particles (1 x 1= 1mk)
    2. C= Humus / organic matter.
      D = Gravel.
      2 x 1 = (2mks)
    3. Texture 1x1 = (1mk)
  3.  
    1. Splash / Rain drop  1 x1 = 1mk
    2.  
      • soil depth / profile
      • Soil type 2 x 1 = (2mks)
    3.  
      • Wind
      • Water
      • Human beings
      • Animals
  4.  
    1. invoice 1 x 1 = (1mk)
    2. Functions of the invoice
      1. Written by sellers to show the buyer of goods bought on credit
      2. Confirm to the buyer the goods delivered
      3. Reminds the buyer of date due for payments 2x1 = 2mks
  5.  
    1. Compost manure 1x1 =(1mk)
    2. E = Dry leaves
      F = Maize stalk 2 x ½ = ( 1mk)

SECTION C:

  1.  
    1. Activities undertaken in minimum tillage.
      • Use of herbicides to control weeds
      • Mulching
      • Establishment of cover crops weeds in the field to smoother weeds.
      • Uprooting and slashing of weeds
      • Selective cultivation restricting cultivation
      • Area when seeds are to be planted
      • Timing cultivation
    2. Qualities of a good farm manager.
      • Has knowledge about specific agricultural principles, marketing and accounting
      • Hardworking and time conscious
      • Has practical farming skills
      • Flexible in decision making
      • Should be responsible/ dynamic /prudent/ competent / ambitious.
        (any 5x1 =5mks)
    3. Ways in which farmers may overcome risks and uncertainties in a farming business.
      • Diversification: having various enterprise so that if one falls, the farmer has something to rely on.
      • Contract production: growing crops on contract with the consumer with assurance of the market.
      • Input rationing: use of inputs sparingly to avoid wastage/ incurring unnecessary expenses.
      • Flexibility in production: being able to make alternatives in farming schedules
      • Selecting more certain enterprises: embarking on enterprise with less risk.
      • Insurance: insuring the enterprise that in case
      • Adopting modern methods of farming i.e : irrigation crop rotation & animal husbandry practice.
      • Use of government price stabilization policies.
        (any 5x2 =10mks)
  2.  
    1. Functions of agricultural marketing
      • Processing: processing raw materials to add value, utility and improves shelf life.
      • Transportation: provide transport of agricultural products from farmers to the market
      • Financing : provide capital to carry out agricultural activities
      • Advertising: advertise farm products in order to increase demand
      • Buying: getting from farmers/ producers
      • Gathering market information: to determine the appropriate market and price.
      • Selling: sell on behalf of the farmer
      • Insurance: bearing risk by protecting from damage.
      • Standardization / grading: putting into grades so as to provide uniform standards and cater for various consumers.
      • Packing: pack the farm produce storage space and make transport and selling easier.
      • Storage: store farm produce after harvest in order to minimize losses/ store a marketing strategy/ to ensure continuous supply.
      • Displaying the produce for consumers to buy. (any 5x2=10mks)
    2. Types of water erosion.
      • Splash /raindrop: results from impact of raindrops on the soil.
      • Sheet erosion ; - uniform removal of soil in thin layers from a flat or gently sloping land.
      • Rillerosion: removal of soil from small but well defined channels.
      • Gully erosion: - an advanced stage of rill erosion characterized by deep long ditches made by running water .
        (any 4x1 =4mks)
    3. Nursery preparation and establishment in price production.
      • Measure out an area of 18.5m enough to produce materials for one hectare.
      • Clear plough and harrow to a fine tilth.
      • Construct bunds around the nursery to retain water.
      • Prepare channels to facilitate watering and drainage
      • Flood the nursery to depth of 10cm
      • Puddle the field to obtained fine mud
      • Seeds are pre- germinated soaking in water in a bag for 24hours
      • Remove the seed and cover with grass for 24-48 hours to allow sprouting
      • Broadcast sprouted seed at a rate of 45kg/ha.
      • Seedlings are allowed to grow to a height of 15cm before transplanting.
        (any 6x1=6mks)
  3.  
    1. Factors influencing the demand of agricultural products.
      • Price of related goods: demand of commodity increase with an increase in the price of a substitute
      • Population: the higher the population the higher the demand.
      • Income: income determine the purchasing power of buyers thus demand increases
      • Preferences and faster: consumers will buy more for what they liked/ preferred and low demand for what is substituted for.
      • Price expectation: demand for a certain good goes up if its price is expected to go up in future.
      • Advertisement: create awareness / increase sales hence increase in demand.
      • Belief, customs and taboos : -may forbid consumption of certain items e.g. fork for Muslims.
      • Level of taxation: highly taxed goods have price resulting to low demand.
      • Future expectation: fear of future shortage increase of commodities.
        (any 5x2=10)
    2. Methods of pasture conservation and utilization
      • Hay making i.e dried forage.
      • Silage making: - anaerobic fermenting of succulent fodders.
      • Standing forage: set a side for seasons feeds
      • Pad docking: rotational grazing
      • Strip grazing
      • Tethering
      • Continuous grazing – pasture not allowed any resting period
      • Zero grazing: defoliation and feed directly to animals.
    3. Reasons for raising vegetable seedling through nursery
      • Many seedlings are produced in a small area
      • Easier to carry out management practices
      • Enables establishment of tiny seeds to become strong seedlings before transplanting
      • To provide optimum conditions for growth
      • Allows transplanting of seedlings that are strong and healthy
      • Reduce time taken by crop in the field
      • Extra seedlings can be sold to earn income.
        (any 5x2=10mks)

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