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Ways in which the earth crust is affected by earthquakes.

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  1. Cracking and faulting: Earthquakes can cause the Earth's crust to crack and form faults, leading to the formation of new geological features such as valleys, hills, and cliffs.
  2. Ground uplift or subsidence: Earthquakes can cause the ground to rise or sink, leading to the creation of new landforms and changes in topography.
  3. Landslides and rockfalls: Earthquakes can cause slopes to fail and result in the movement of large amounts of rock and soil, leading to landslides and rockfalls.
  4. Soil liquefaction: In areas with loose, saturated soils, earthquakes can cause the soil to lose its strength and stiffness, leading to ground failure and the formation of sinkholes.
  5. Tsunamis: Large earthquakes can generate tsunamis, which are ocean waves that can cause widespread damage to coastal communities.
  6. Changes in groundwater: Earthquakes can cause changes in the level and flow of groundwater, leading to changes in water availability for human and environmental use.
  7. Damage to buildings and infrastructure: Earthquakes can cause significant damage to buildings, bridges, roads, and other structures, leading to disruptions in transportation, communication, and other essential services.
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