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Enumerate eight Islamic rules that govern the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims.

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  1. Muslims should deal with them justly and with fairness. Allah (SWT) says, “Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: For Allah loves those who are just.” [Q 60:8]
  2. Muslims should extend greeting to them as a sign of good neighbourhood.
  3. Muslims should exercise wisdom, patience and knowledge when debating or discussing religious issues with the non-Muslims. The Qur’an directs that; “And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury); but say, ‘We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God and your God is One; And it is to Him we bow (in Islam)” [Q 29:46]
  4. Muslims must be careful not to compromise the religion with non-Islamic practices that are prevalent in the society.
  5. Muslims can enter into treaties or peaceful agreements with the non-Muslims for the sake of coexistence. The Prophet (PBUH) showed a good example when he settled in Madina. He succeeded to unite all its inhabitants (Muslims, Jews, Christians and pagan Arabs) to sign a treaty (that is, the Madinan constitution).
  6. Non-Muslims should be given the freedom of practising their religion without interference.
  7. Visiting them when sick and praying for their recovery and guidance.
  8. Sending condolences to them during death, disasters and tragedies.
  9. Collective participation with them in any project or undertaking beneficial to the society.
  10. Perform da’wa (inviting them to Islam) using good language and wisdom. They should not be coerced to embrace Islam. Allah (SWT) says; “There is no compulsion in religion. The truth stands out clear from error.” [Q 2:256]
  11. Accommodate them in our communities and show them kindness and justice. At one time caliph Umar (RA) the second Caliph had learned that some Muslims had taken a piece of land that belonged to a Jew, and had built a mosque on it, he ordered the demolition of the mosque and the piece of land was given back to the Jew.
  12. Sign treaties with them and having respect for such treaties. The Prophet (PBUH), despite facing hardships from the Makkan Quraish, he signed the treaty of Hudaibiya which was favouring the Makkans. The Muslims respected the terms of the treaty.
  13. Maintain good family ties with them. There are instances where one or some members of a family are of different religions. A Muslim should not break his or her family ties.
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