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Describe how to prepare chloride of aluminum by direct synthesis. 

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  1. Set up a fume hood or work in a well-ventilated area as the reaction may release toxic gases.
  2. Gather the necessary materials and equipment: aluminum metal (preferably in powder or small pieces), hydrochloric acid (HCl), a glass or plastic container with a tight-fitting lid, a heat source (such as a Bunsen burner or hot plate), and protective gear (gloves, safety goggles, and a lab coat).
  3. Ensure that all equipment and materials are clean and free from any contaminants.
  4. Place the aluminum metal pieces or powder into the glass or plastic container.
  5. Add hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the container, covering the aluminum completely. The ratio of aluminum to hydrochloric acid should be approximately 1:3 (one part aluminum to three parts HCl by volume)
  6. Close the container tightly with its lid to prevent the escape of any gases.
  7. Carefully heat the container using a Bunsen burner or hot plate. Apply gentle and controlled heat to the mixture.
  8. As the reaction progresses, you may observe the release of gas and bubbling. This indicates the formation of aluminum chloride (AlCl3).
  9. Continue heating the mixture until the reaction is complete. The reaction is usually finished when the bubbling stops and the mixture settles down.
  10. Allow the container to cool down after the reaction has finished. Handle it with caution as it may still be hot.
  11. Once the container has cooled, open it carefully, and you should find solid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) formed within the container.
  12. Carefully collect the aluminum chloride and store it in a properly labeled and sealed container for further use or analysis.
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