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    1. What is faulting?   
    2. Give three types of faults.    
  2. Using well labelled diagrams, describe how the Rift Valley is formed by compressional forces.
  3. Use the map of Kenya below to answer the questions that follow.
    map of kenya diagram
    1. The lakes marked Q and R.  
    2. The mountain marked S.    
    3. The river marked T.   
  4. Explain three negative effects of faulting.   
  5. Form four students carried out a field study on a faulted landscape. Give three advantages of using observation as a method of collecting data. 

1 Answer

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    1. The fracturing/breaking of the rocks of the earth's crust due to tectonic forces.
      • Normal fault
      • Reverse fault
      • Tear/slip/shear/strike-slip/wrench/transform
      • Anticlinal fault.
    1. Layers of rocks are subjected to compressional forces.
      diagram on rift valley compressional forces
    2. Lines of weakness develop/two parallel reverse faults develop.
      lines of weakness developed
    3. The outer blocks are pushed over the middle block.
    4. The middle block remains stable or slightly subskewed.
      overhanging sides
    5. The overhanging sides are worn away by denudation/erosion/collapse to form steep slopes/scarps
      * This leads to the formation of an elongated depression called the Rift valley.
      rift valley formation
      • Q -Lake Nakuru
      • R-Lake Magadi
    2. S - Mt.Kenya
    3. T - R.Galana/Athi/Sabaki
    1. Faulting causes disjointing of land leading to disruption of communication lines.
    2. Fault scarps/block mountains form barriers to road/railway construction.
    3. Faulting may cause sudden sinking of land leading to loss of life/property.
    4. Faults may cause a river to disappear underground leading in change direction causing water shortages downstream.
    5. leeward side of block mountains receive little rainfall discouraging human activities/settlement.
    1. Gives first hand/reliable information
    2. collect relevant answer/ up to date data
    3. Saves on time
    4. Enhances memory
    5. Encouraging participation of all members
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