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Describe how the following features found in upland glaciated landscape are formed

  1. U-shaped valley
  2. Pyramidal peak

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U-shaped valley

  • A pre-existing V –shaped valley is filled with ice/glacier
  • The gracier erodes the V-shaped valley by abrasion and plucking process vertically and laterally
  • The valley is deepened and widened by vertical erosion and lateral erosion
  • The end spurs are truncated/trimmed/cut
  • The ice melts away leaving a U-shaped valley

Pyramidal peak 

  • Initially ice collects in several hollows on the maintain side
  • The ice exerts pressure on the hollows/cracks
  • The plucking action of the ice enlarges the hollow so that more ice collects in them
  • Freeze and thaw action of the ice leads to the expansion of cracks/hollows making them large basins which are called cirques
  • Nivation into back walls of the hollows make them recede into the mountain side/the cirques recede towards each other.
  • Steep sided, knife edged ridges/arêtes converge at the top of the mountain forming a jogged peak called a peak/horn(surrounded by corries/cirques)
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