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Below is a simplified diagram of the Down’s cell used for the manufacture of sodium. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
Chemf4et1p2q2

  1. What material is the anode made of? Give a reason 
  2. What precautions are taken to prevent chlorine and sodium from re-combining?
  3. Write an ionic equation for the reaction in which chlorine gas is formed. 
  4. In the Downs process above a certain salt is added to lower the melting point of sodium chloride from about 800ºc to about 600ºc.
    • Name the salt that is added. 
    • State why it is necessary to lower the temperature.

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  1. What material is the anode made of? Give a reason 
    • Carbon / graphite
    • It does not react with chlorine formed
  2. What precautions are taken to prevent chlorine and sodium from re-combining? 
    • Anode and cathode are separated by steal gauze diaphragm
  3. Write an ionic equation for the reaction in which chlorine gas is formed. 
    • Cl-(aq) → Cl2(g) + 2e-
  4. In the Downs process above a certain salt is added to lower the melting point of sodium chloride from about 800ºc to about 600ºc.
    • Name the salt that is added. 
      • Calcium chloride
    • State why it is necessary to lower the temperature. 
      • To make the process less expensive by reducing electricity cost.

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