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Describe how each of the following volcanic features are formed:


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  • lava pours out of a central vent to form volcanic cone
  • Vent is sealed when lava solidifies
  • Solidifies lava blocks gases and steam beneath, preventing them from escaping
  • Pressure piles up below, leading to a violent eruption which blows off the top of the cone forming depression.
  • The depression is large and circular and it is known as caldera

  • Lava pours out of central vent to form volcanic cone
  • Magma chambers are left empty/void
  • Due to overlying weight at top of cone, pressure is exerted
  • Top of the cone subsides forming a depression
  • This depression is large and circular and is called a caldera

    (outward collapsing theory)
  • A volcano is build of ash and pyroclasts to form a dome
  • Weak materials at the base are unable to support the overlying materials / weight
  • Materials at thee base spread outward as top part subsides, leading to large depression known as caldera.
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