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The diagram below shows the structure of a gill of a bony fish.

  1. Name the structure labeled Q, R and S. (3mks)
  2. State the function of structure Q, R and S. (3mks)
  3. Give four ways in which structure Q is adapted to its functions. 

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    1. Q – Gill filaments
    2. R – Gill rakers
    3. S – Gill bar
    1. Q ;- Gill filament – provide large surface are for gaseous exchange.
    2. R ;- Gill rakers – Trap food and solid particles to prevent them from damaging delicate gill filament.
    3. S ;- Gill bar – for attachment of gill filaments and gill rakers.
    1. Numerous to provide large surface area for gaseous exchange.
    2. Thin epithelium to provide a short distance for diffusion of molecules.
    3. Highly vascularised to create a steep concentration gradient for gaseous exchange.
    4. Moist to dissolve gaseous for easier diffusion in solution form.
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