Tuesday, 21 September 2021 09:48

Resources And Economic Activities - Class 6 Social Studies Revision Notes

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What are resources?

  • Resources are things we use to meet our needs and obtain wealth They include;
    1. water
    2. minerals
    3. manpower
    4. soil
    5. animals
    6. forests

What is an economic activity?

  • economic activities are things we do to earn a living
  • It is the use of resources in order to create wealth
  • they include;
    1. agriculture
    2. fishing
    3. transport and communication
    4. mining
    5. trading
    6. tourism


  • Is the growing of crops and rearing of livestock
  • Is the main economic activity of most eastern africas economy
  • Is for both commercial and home use
  • Crops grown for sale are called cash crops or commercial crops
  • Crops grown for home use or consumption are called food or subsistence crops
  • Growing of crops and keeping of livestock at the same time is called mixed farming.

Coffee in Kenya and Ethiopia

  • The name coffee came from a highland district of kaffa in ethiopia
  • The two main types of coffee in eastern africa are;
    1. arabica
    2. robusta
  1. Arabica
    • It is the main variety grown in Eastern Africa
    • mainly grown in the highlands regions
    • has the best quality of coffee

  2. Robusta
    • does well in lowland regions
    • has low yields
    • can survive severe weather conditios
    • is more disease resistant

Conditions Necessary for the Growth of Coffee

  • adequate and reliable rainfall 1000mm-1800mm
  • temperatures ranging from 19̊ C-26̊C.
  • Altitude ranging from 1000m – 2000m a.s.l
  • Fertile deep and well drained soils(volcanic)
  • Protection from direct sunlight for young trees
  • Protection from strong winds
  • Pruning of the unwanted branches suckers

Coffee in Kenya

  • Kenya planters co-operative union KPCU helps in;
    1. collection
    2. transportation
    3. storage of coffee beans
  • the coffee board of kenya CBK provides;
    1. guidelines on planting
    2. constructing stores
    3. marketing the crop
    4.  improving through research for better varieties

Areas Where Coffee is Grown

  Arabica Robusta
KENYA Murang’a, Kiambu, Kirinyaga,  Embu, Mt.Elgon, Nyeri,
Kitui, Meru, Machakos, Kisii, Thika, South Nyanza
Siaya, busia, bungoma
ETHIOPIA  Harar, Kaffa  

Contribution of coffee to the economy

  1. Earns foreign exchange when exported
  2. Source of income for the farmers
  3. Creates employment
  4. Industrial development
  5. Development of infrastructure

Maize in Kenya and Tanzania

  • Was introduced by the portuguese from central america
  • Staple food in Kenya and Tanzania
  • Grown on both small and large scale
  • National cereal and produce board(NCPB) buys, stores distributes maize on behalf of Kenyan Government
  • Kenya Seed Company K.S.C is responsible for the production and distribution of maize seeds
  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute KARI assists farmers through research

Conditions Necessary for The Growth of Maize

  1. Rainfall between 700mm-2500mm
  2. Warm or hot temperature 18 ̊c-27 c
  3. Does well in a wide variety of soils
  4. A dry spell towards harvesting

Maize growing areas
Large scale


Trans nzoia, Trans mara, Uasin gishu, Bungoma, Lugari, Nakuru, Narok, Nandi

TANZANIA Moshi-arusha, Tanga, Mbeya,Iringa, Ruaha region,Rufiji region

Contributions of maize to the economy

  1. Is the staple food for many people
  2. Source of income for the farmers
  3. Raw material for corn oil and animal feed industries
  4. Creates employment opportunities
  5. Maize stalks are used to improve soil fertility
  6. Saves foreign exchange that would have been used to import maize

Bananas in Kenya and Uganda

  • Introduced from South-East Asia
  • Grown on both small and large scale
  • Grows on both natural conditions and under irrigation
  • Grown from banana shoots or suckers
  • Are eaten when cooked or as ripe fruits
  • Are the staple food in Uganda
  • Kisubi bananas are used in making of alcohol drinks called waragi in Uganda
  • Green bananas are steamed and mashed to make matoke

Conditions necessary for the growth of bananas

  1. High temperatures betwen 21 ̊c – 26 ̊ c
  2. Heavy and well distributed rainfall 1000mm – 2000mm
  3. Irrigation where rainfall is inadequate
  4. Deep fertile well drained soil(alluvial are suitable)
  5. Protection from strong winds by planting wndbreakers
  6. Props to support banana plant with fruits

Areas Where Bananas Are Grown

KENYA Kisii, Vihiga, Bungoma, Meru Central,Nyamira, Kasipul kabondo, Kuria, Meru south

 Murang’a, Mandera, Garissa

UGANDA Buganda – busoga shores of Lake Victoria, Tororo – mbale lower slope Mt.Elgon
Ankole – toro msw Uganda, Kigezi highlands

Contributions of bananas to the economy

  1. Source of food
  2. Source of income to the farmers
  3. Source of employment
  4. Banana fibres are used in making of ;
    1. ropes
    2. baskets
    3. mats
    4. thatching traditional houses
  5. source of feeds for cattle
  6. bananas stalks and leaves provide manure

Sisal in Kenya and Tanzania

  • Was introduced by the portuguese in 1893
  • Is a natural fibre crop
  • Grown from suckers
  • Mainly grown for its fibre
  • Fibre extracted from the sisal leaves
  • Was introduced into Kenya by the white settlers
  • Grown in plantations
  • Tanzania is the leading producer of sisal

Conditions necessary for the growth of Sisal

  1. high temperatures of 28 ̊C
  2. rainfall between 680mm-1200mm
  3. does well in a wide variety of soils
  4. plenty of sunshine for drying fibres
  5. low lying areas of altitude 0m – 1900ma.s.l

Areas Where Sisal is Grown

KENYA Kilifi, Voi, Mwatate, vipingo, Taita taveta,Mogotio, Thika, juja, Maragwa, solai, Ziwa,uasin gishu
TANZANIA Tanga, morogoro, Kilosa, lindi, Arusha, usambara mt.region, Mtwara, dar-el-salaam

Sisal plantations in tanzania are located along the railway to make transportation easier

Sisal production has declined due to ;

  1. stiff competition from synthetic fibre
  2.  low demand

Contributions of Sisal to the Economy

  1. creation of employment opportunities
  2. source of income for the farmers
  3. development of intrastructure
  4. source of foreign exchange and revenue
  5. sisal fibres are used to make bags, ropes, sackcloth and mats

Sugarcane in Kenya and Sudan

  • Introduced from south east asia by europeans
  • grown on both small scale and large scale farms
  • grown under both natural conditions and irrigation
  • grown mainly under irrigation in sudan
  • is perennial crop i.e. can grow again after harvesting
  • small scale sugarcane farmers are called out growers
  • sugar companies grows sugarcane on large farms called nucleus estates

Conditions Necessary for The Growth of Sugarcane

  1. high temperatures ranging from 21 ̊c – 27 ̊c
  2. high annual rainfall between 1200mm – 2000mm.
  3. Deep, fertile well drained soils(black cotton soils)
  4. Gently sloping land
  5. A warm dry season before harvesting
  6. Altitude ranging from 0m – 1800m a.s.l.

Sugarcane growing areas

KENYA Chemelil, muhoroni, Homa bay, songhor, Awendo, ramisi,
Kisumu, miwani, Nyando, nzoia, Migori, nandi, Bungoma,
kakamega, Busia, ainamoi, Mumias, trans mara
SUDAN Blue nile and white nile valley, Blue nile and atbara valley

Contributions of Sugarcane to the Economy

  1. Raw materials for sugar milling factories
  2. Source of employment
  3. Source of income
  4. Improved intrastructures
  5. Development of other related industries
  6. Bagasse a by-product is used in production of;
    1. electricity 
    2. fibreboar
    3. Fuel in boilers
  7. molasses a by-product is used to;
    1. make alcoholic drinks
    2. sweeten livestock feeds

Beef Farming in Kenya and Tanzania

  • Is the largest rearing of animals for meat production
  • mainly done on large farms called ranches
  • ranches are sub-divided into small units called paddocks
  • paddocks helps in the utilisation of the pasture
  • it is practised in areas that
    1. receive low rainfall
    2. have low population densities
  • it is mainly for commercial purposes
  • animals kept
    Local Breeds Zebu, Boran, sahiwal 
    Exotic Breeds  Hereford, Charolais, Aberdeen angus
  • Boreholes and wells are drilled to provide animals with water
  • Cross-breeding is carried out to improve the quality of animals
  • Animals are fed on fodders such as hay when pasture is inadequate

The Kenya Meat Commisision (KMC)

  1. Buys cattle from ranches for slaughter
  2. Processes into beef and beef products
  • National Agricultural Company manages ranches in Tanzania
  • Tanzania Meat Commission buys beef cattle

Beef farming areas

KENYA Laikipia, Machakos, Athi river, Kajiado, Meru, Taita taveta, Trans nzoia, Naivasha in nakuru
Kilifi, Nyeri North, Kwale, Uasin Gishu
TANZANIA Kongwa ranch(main), Morogoro , Mpwapwa, Slopes of mt.kilimanjaro and Mt.meru, 


Contributions of beef farming to the economy

  1. Source of meat
  2. Source of income
  3. Source of employment
  4. Beef export earns foreign exchange
  5. Source of raw material for tanneries
  6. Development of infrastructure
  7. Encourages good use of land
  8. In areas receiving unreliable rainfall

Problems facing beef farming

  1. Pests and diseases
  2. Lack of enough capital
  3. Shortage of water and pasture
  4. Attacks by wild animals
  5. Poor means of transport network
  6. Competition from other sources of protein
  7. Low prices offered in the market


  • Is the harvesting of fish from water for; Sale/commercial purposes or Home use

Types of fishing

  1. Inland fishing
  2. Sea fishing


  • Inland fishing
    • Is done in fresh water bodies e.g.rivers, lakes, swamps, dams and fish farms.
  • Sea fishing
    • Is done in salty water bodies e.g.seas and oceans
    • Is also called marine fishing

Types of fish caught


 Tilapia, Mudfish, Trout, African catfish
Omena, Dagaa, Catfish, Nileperch, Lungfish
Blackbass,Common carp,Salman

Tuna, Mullet, Kingfish, Parrot fish
Shell fish, Sail fish, Sardines, Cat fish
Shellfish(lobsters, oysters, crabs)
Prawns, shrimps 
  • L.tanganyika is famous/main source of dagaa
  • main sea fishing ground along the indian ocean of
    Malindi, Mombasa, Kiunga
    Shimoni, Vanga,Lamu, Kilifi
    Zanzibar, tanga, Mtwara, kilwa
    Pemba, bagamoyo, Lindi, pangani
    Dar-el-salaam ,mafia


  • The main inland fishing ground in eastern africa is Lake Victoria
  • Marine fishing in Eastern Africa is mainly done by foreign companies

Problems facing inland fishing in Kenya and Tanzania

  1. Lack of adequate funds to buy modern fishing facilities
  2. Water reeds like water hyacinth
  3. Pollution of rivers and lakes
  4. Use of wrong fishing nets
  5. Mismanagement of fishing co-operatives
  6. Arrest of fishermen when they cross border
  7. Accident in the lakes
  8. Problems facing sea fishing in kenya and tanzania
  9. Inadequate capital
  10. Illegal fishing by foreign vessels
  11. Little market limited market
  12. Destruction of coral along the coast
  13. Lack of proper landing piers and freezers
  14. Lack of proper storage facilities
  15. Pollution of the ocean by the oil spillage



  • Is the buying and selling of goods and services
  • Is the exchange of goods and services for money

Forms of Trade in Eastern Africa

  1. Domestic/internal trade
  2. International/external trade

Internal/domestic trade

  • Also called local trade
  • Takes when goods are produced and sold within a country Also takes place between communities
  • Examples of domestic trade
    1. Retail trade
    2. Whole sale
    3. Supermarkets

International trade

  • Also called foreign or external trade
  • Is carried out between countries (trading partners)
  • It involves importing and exporting
  • Examples of foreign trade include;
    1. Bilateral trade
    2. Multilatelateral trade
    3. Regional trade
  • Main exports from Eastern Africa are agricultural raw materials e.g.
    1. Tea
    2. Coffee
    3. Pyrethrum
    4. Tobacco
    5. Bananas
    6. Livestock
    7. Livestock products
    8.  Flowers
    9. Minerals
    10. Vegetable
    11. Petroleum
  • Main imports into Eastern Africa are manufactured/finished products e.g.
    1. Petroluem
    2. Machinery 
    3. Chemicals
    4. Electronics
    5. Textile products
    6. Paper products
    7. Fertilizers
    8. Iron and steel

Factors Influencing Trade in Eastern Africa

  1. Political stability
  2. Good means of transport and communication
  3. Availability of items/products for saleAvailability of capital
  4. Availability of markets
  5. Government policies
  6. Means of payment or exchange
  7. Taxation of goods

Benefits of Trade in Eastern Africa

  1. Creation of employment
  2. Improvement of transport and transport
  3.  Earns foreign exchange
  4. Promotes cooperation and understanding
  5. Promotes growth of towns(urbanization)
  6. Promotes agricultural sector
  7. Source of revenue for the government
  8. Promotes interaction and exchange of ideas

Problems Facing Trade in Eastern Africa

  1. Limited market due to production of similar goods
  2. Fluctuation of the price in the market
  3. Poor roads and other infrastructures
  4. Smuggling of goods and failure to pay taxes
  5. Political differences and instability
  6. Quota system
  7. Preference of imported goods to locally made goods
  8. Differences in the value of currencies
  9. Exported goods fetches little money compared to the high prices of imported goods

Transport And Communication


  • Transport refers to the movement of people and goods from one place to another

Forms of transport used in Eastern Africa

  1. Roads
  2. Waterways
  3. Airways
  4. Railways
  5. Pipelines
  6. Cables


  1. Roads
    • it is the most common form of transport used in Eastern Africa.
    • there are three types of roads
      1. tarmac all weather roads
      2. murram roads
      3. dry-weather roads

        Major Tarmac Roads in Eastern Africa
        1. The Trans-African Highway that connects Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi
        2. The Great North Road connects Capetown in South Africa and Eastern Africa through Tanzania, Kenya and Sudan

  2. Waterways
    • It is a cheap but a slow form of transport
    • it involves the use of ;
      1. rivers
      2. lakes
      3. oceans
    • waterways are divided into two;
      1. inland waterways
      2. marine waterways
    • inland waterways of Eastern Africa are found in Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi
    • The main ports in Lakes Victoria include:
      1. Kisumu in Kenya
      2. Mwanza in Tanzania
      3. Entebe in Uganda
      4. Singa in Uganda
      5. Bukoba in Tanzania
      6. Musoma in Tanzania
      7. Kampala in Uganda
    • the main ports in Lake Tanganyika are Kigoma and Ujiji.
    • Marine waterways are found in seas and oceans
    • It is mainly used to transport heavy and bulky goods
    • Countries without seaports are called landlocked countries e.g. burundi, rwanda, uganda and ethiopia.
    • The main seaports in Eastern Africa are ;
      1. Mombasa in Kenya
      2. Dar El Salaam in Tanzania
      3. Mogadishu in Somalia
      4. Port Sudan in Sudan
      5. Massawa in Eritrea

  3. Airways
    • Air transport is the quickest but mosy expensive means of transport
    • it is used to transport perishable and precious goods e.g. flowers, fruits, vegetable, jewellery and medical supplies

      Main International Airports
      1. Jomo Kenyatta Airport in Nairobi
      2. Moi International Airport in Mombasa
      3. Eldoret International Airport in Eldoret
      4. Mogadishu in Somalia
      5. Khartoum and Port Sudan in Sudan
      6. Entebe in Uganda
      7. Asmara in Eritrea
      8. Djibouti in Djibouti
      9. Bujumbura in Burundi
      10. Kigali in Rwanda
      11. Dar El Salaam, Arusha and Zanzibar in Tanzania
      12. Addis Ababa in Ethiopia

  4. Railways
    • all Eastern Africa countries have railways except Somalia
    • most of the railway lines were constructed by the colonial government
    • Main railway lines in Eastern Africa are:
      1. Kenya – Uganda railway
      2. Tanzania – Zambia railway(tazara)

  5. Pipelines
    • pipelines are mainly used to transport liquids and gasses
    • pipelines transport is fast and reliable
    • it reduces road accidents and destruction of roads by oil tankers
    • Kenya, Tanzania and Sudan uses pipeline to transport oil

  6. Cables
    • cables are wires used to transport elecricity
    • the oldest hydro-electric power in Eastern Africa is Owen Falls Dam in Uganda.

Problems Faced in Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. Roads and railways are expensive to build and maintai
  2. Poor management
  3. Competition from other forms of transport
  4. Frequent accidents
  5. Presence of water weeds e.g.water hyacinth 6. insecurity
  6. Traffic jams
  7. Theft and vandalism
  8. Lack of capital to improve it


  • This is sending and receiving of messages or information form one person or place to another.

Means of Communication

  1. print media
    1. newspaper
    2. magazines
    3. journals
    4. books
  2. electronic media
    1. telephone
    2. radio
    3. television
    4. mobile phones
    5. internet
    6. computers
  3. postal services
    1. sending of letters and parcels
    2.  use of money orders

points to note

  1. The fastest means of communication is the mobile phones
  2. The best means of communication to a large group of people at the same time is the radio
  3. The most recent form of communication is the use of computers

Problems Facing Communication in Eastern Africa

  1. Theft of cables
  2. Inadequate funds to modernise communication
  3. Poor means of transport
  4. Lack of electricity
  5. High rate of illiteracy
  6. Frequent changes in technology
  7. High cost of living
  8. Breakdown of communication devices
  9. Low population densities hinder expansion of communication

Benefits of Improved Transport and Communication

  1. Promotes trade
  2. Creation of employment
  3. Use of pipes reduces road damage by heavy trucks
  4. Facilitate faster exchange of ideas between countries
  5. Agricultural goods are transported to the market with ease
  6. Promotes tourism
  7. Perishable goods are easily transported to the market.


  • Industries are the processes and activities to produce final goods from raw materials
  • A factory is a place where raw materials are turned into new and useful products

Types of industries

  1. Processing
  2. Manufacturing
  3. Assembly
  4. Service
  5. Jua kali/cottage


  1. Processing industries

    • Also called primary indutries
    • The produce goods used in other idustries
    • Mostly deals with agricultural products
    • They are the most widespread in Eastern Africa

      Examples of processing industries
      1. Coffee and tea processing industries
      2. Baking industries
      3. Wheat and maize milling industries
      4. Meat and milk processing
      5. Sisal processing

  2. Manufacturing industries

    • Also called secondary idustries
    • Relies on some goods from primary industries
    • Some use raw materials directly

      Examples of manufacturing industries
      1. Cement making
      2. Oil refineries
      3. Glass making industries
      4. Paper making industries
      5. Medicine making industries

  3. Assembly industries

    • To assemble is to put together
    • It involves putting together items to get a complete item
    • Examples of assembling industries
      1. Motor vehicle assembly
      2. Bicycle assembly
      3. Radio assembly
      4. Television assembly

  4. Service industries

    • They provide services

      Examples of service industries
      1. Banking
      2. Hotels
      3. Printing and publishing
      4. Transport and communication
      5. Insurance
      6. Any kind of repair
      7. Tourism

  5. Cottage industries

    • Also called jua kali industries
    • Uses the locally available materials
    • Operates in open air
    • Requires little capital to start

      1. Pottery
      2. Wood curving
      3. Weaving
      4. Basketry
      5.  Blacksmithing
      6. Use of waste iron to make pans, pangas, jembes

Importance of industries in Eastern Africa

  1. Creates employment
  2. Earns foreign exchange
  3. Promotes trade
  4. Source of revenue to the government
  5. Leads to development of infrastructure
  6. Leads to urbanization
  7. It is a of income
  8. Promotes agriculture
  9. Improves the peoples living standards
  10. Saves countries foreign exchange that would be used to import goods

Problems facing industries

  1. Lack of adequate capital for expansion
  2. Worker strikes
  3. Poor means of transport
  4. Political instability
  5. Stiff competition from imported goods
  6. Inadequate power supply
  7. Inadequate raw materials
  8. High taxes
  9. Unfrindly trade terms
  10. Small internal markets

Impacts of industries on the environment

  1. Causes pollution
    1. Air polution
    2. Water polution
    3. Noise polution
  2. Destruction of land due to poor garbage disposal
  3. Destruction of forests
  4. Mining industies spoil the beauty of the land
  5. Displacement of people
  6. Evaluation questions

Wildlife And Tourism


  • Refers to all undomesticated plants ,animals,insects and birds in their natural habitats

Game parks

  • Reserved for wild animals
  • Also called National park
  • Managed by the Kenya Wildlife Service

    Game parks in Eastern Africa

    Tsavo east, Tsavo west, Meru, Amboseli Sibiloi , Aberdares,
    Hells gate ,Marsabit Nairobi, nakuru


    serengeti, ruaha, tarangire, kilimanjaro, arusha, katavi,
    udzungwa, mikumi

    UGANDA  bwindi, queen elizabeth, kidepo valley, murchison falls
    ruwenzori, muhavura, mt.elgon, semilki
    ETHIOPIA simyen, angudi, omo, awash, ras dashen, goba, gambela
    SUDAN dinder, juba, nuba mountains


Games reserves

  • Reserved for animals [wild]
  • Also called National reserves
  • Managed by the local council
  • Human activities like grazing, cllecting firewood etc are allowed

    Game Reserves in Eastern Africa
    KENYA Maasai mara, Samburu, Shimba hills
    Lake bogoria, Arawale, Kora, Boni, Rahole 
    UGANDA Katonga, Bakora, Matheniko, Kigezo
    Pian upe, Karuma, Toro
    TANZANIA Selous, Kigosi, Rungwa, Ngoro ngoro
    Ugalla, Gremeti
    ETHIOPIA Harer, Lake Stefania, Mega, Lalibela


  1. Define the term wildlife
  2. The main tourist attraction in eastern africa is
  3. Define the following terms
    1. game reserves
    2. game park
  4. Name two game reserves in;
    1. Kenya
    2. Uganda
    3. Tanzania
  5. Name two game parks in ;
    1. Kenya
    2. Uganda
    3. Tanzania

Wildlife Conservation

  • This is taking care and protecting the wildlife.
  • Wildlife Conservation Measures include:
    1. establishment of anti poaching unit to stop poaching.
    2. Establishment of bodies to manage wildlife e.g.KWS,UWA and mali hai of tanzania
    3. Educating people on the importance of wildlife
    4. Putting electrical fences om parks
    5. Establishment of parks and reserves
    6. Establishing game sanctuaries to protect the endangered species
    7. Translocation taking animals from populated parks
    8. Establishment of animal orphanages to cater for sick and orphans
    9. Making laws and legislation to conserve wildlife

Main Tourist Attractions in Eastern Africa

  1. Wildlife
    • It is the main in eastern africa
    • Includes the big five animals
    • Birds i.e.flamingoes in lake in nakuru and natron
    • Most game parks and reserves are sites
  2. Historical sites
    • Olduvai gorge tanzania
    • Fort jesus kenya
    • Kasubi tombs uganda
    • Slave markets
    • Museums
  3. Sandy beaches - Along the coast of the indian ocean
  4. Warm climate
  5. Beautiful sceneries
    • Snow caped mountains
    • Waterfalls
    • Craters
    • Hot spings and geysers lake bogoria
    • Rift valley
  6. Cultural heritage
    • Traditional dances
    • Traditional food
    • Mode of dressing
  7. Good accomodation and conference facilities
    • Attracts conference tourists e.g.KICC, AU conference center

Benefits of Tourism

  1. Earns foreign exchange
  2. Creates employment
  3. It is a source of income
  4. Leads to industrialization
  5. Leads to urbanisation
  6. Improves people living standards
  7. Promotes better international relations
  8. Leads to development of infrastructure
  9. It is a source of government revenue
  10. Promotes agriculture

Problems facing tourism

  1. Attack by terrorists
  2. Poaching
  3. Similarity of wildlife in eastern africa
  4. Political instability
  5. High taxation
  6. Poor roads
  7. Poor marketing of tourist destinations
  8. Poor accommodation facilities


  • This is the growth of urban centers
  • Moving from rural areas to towns is called rural – urban migrations
  • The main reason for rural – urban migration is to search for employment

Selected towns in Eastern Africa


  • Second largest city in kenya
  • It ia an island in the indian ocean
  • It is one of the oldest town in eastern africa
  • It has kilindini harbour the biggest port in eastern africa
  • Construction of kenya – uganda railway began in mombasa in 1896

 Functions of Mombasa

  1. Industrial center – has many industries
  2. Administrative centre – headquarters of mombasa county
  3. Commercial centre – has many businesses
  4. Residential centre – more than half a million residents
  5. Tourist attraction - sandy beaches and historical sites
  6. It is a sea port town – kilindini harbour
  7. Transport and communcation center – has an international airport
  8. Educational centre – schools, colleges and universities
  9. Defence centre – headquarters of Kenya Navy

Addis ababa

  • Capital city of ethiopia
  • Located on the ethoipian plateau
  • Headquarters of african unio
  • Was the center of ethiopian empire

Functions of Addis Ababa

  1. Administrative centre headquarters of AU catital city of ethiopia
  2. Industrial centre
  3. Agricultural collection centre
  4. Transport and communication centre
  5. It is an educational centre
  6. It is a residential centre
  7. It is a recreational centre


  • Largest town in uganda and the capital city
  • It is near L.victoria
  • It is built on seven hills
  • Got its name from impala gazelles

Functions of Kampala

  1. Administrative centre – capital city of uganda
  2. Educational centre – many schools
  3. Transport and communication centre
  4. Industrial centre
  5. Residential centre
  6. It is a commercial centre and the main distribution point for imports
  7. Cultural centre – kasumbi tombs, musuems and kibuli mosque


  • Second largest town in uganda
  • Found in Eastern Uganda
  • Found on the shores of Lake Victoria
  • It is the main industrial town in uganda
  • Its growth was due to construction of HEP

Functions of Jinja

  1. Industrial centre – copper smelting industries
  2. Transport and communication centre
  3.  It is a lake port town
  4. It is an agricultural centre
  5.  It is a commercial centre
  6. It is a tourist centre – owen falls dam
  7. It is a residential centre

Dar es salaam

  • Dar es salaam means harbour of peace
  • Developed by arab traders
  • Was the capital city of tanzania until 1972
  • It is the main commercial capital of tanzania
  • It is the main industrial town in eastern tanzania
  • It is an old town along the indian ocean

Functions of Dar-es-Salaam

  1. It is the main commercial centre of tanzania
  2. It is the main industrial centre
  3. It is a main sea port town
  4. It is an industrial centre
  5. It is a residential centre
  6. It is a tourist centre
  7. It is an educational centre


  • Located in central tanzania
  • It is the capital city of tanzania
  • It was made a capital city because it is centrally located ✔ Started as a small trading centre

Functions of Dodoma

  1. It is the main administrative centre i.e.capital city of tanzania
  2. It is a transport and communication centre
  3. It is an industrial centre
  4. It is a residential centre


  • Found to the north- east of tanzania
  • Second largest town in tanzania
  • Started as an agricultural collection centre
  • It has the headqurters of EAC
  • It has the east africa court of justice

Functions of Arusha

  1. Administrative center – headqurters of EAC
  2. It is the main tourist town in tanzania i.e. has several game parks and is near kiilimanjaro 3. Commercial centre
  3. Transport and communication centre
  4. Agricultural collection and distribution centre
  5. Residential centre

Problems Facing Urban Centres

  1. Unemployment
  2. High crime rate
  3. Street families
  4. Traffic jams
  5. Congestion of people
  6. Poor planning
  7. Inadequate houses
  8. Growth and development of slums
  9. Pollution
  10. Poor garbage disposal
  11. Water shortage
  12. Overpopulation and inadequate social facilities

Efforts Made to Solve Problems in Urban Areas

  1. Decentralization – establishing industries in rural areas
  2. Improving living standards in rural areas to curb rural – urban migration 
  3. Locating industries in one area away from residential centre to control pollution
  4. Rehabilitate street children
  5. Provision of dust bins in towns to keep it clean
  6. Employing more police officers to ensure security
  7. Putting traffic lights to control vehicles
  8. Constructing bypasses to ease congestion
  9. Constructing good houses to solve the slums problem
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