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Water containing hydrogen carbonate, HCO3− and calcium Ca2+ ions, is said to be hard water

  1. Describe one way in which HCO3− ions get into river waler (1 mark)
  2. Explain the disadvantage of using this type of water in boilers.  (2 marks)

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    • CO2  dissolves in rain water to form Carbonic acid 
    • Carbonic acid reacts with carbonate rock/Ca and Mg forming hydrogen carbonates of Ca and Mg that gets into rivers. 
  2.  The CaHCO3 and MgCO3 decomposes forming CaCO3/scales/fur  lining the boilers and causing poor thermal conductivity/reducing efficiency.
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