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Analysis of a river water sample showed the presence of the following ions Ca2+, Na+, Cl , NO3−.

  1. Name the type of water hardness present in the sample. 
  2. Describe one precipitation method that can be used to soften the water. 
  3. The water sample was passed through a resin as shown in the figure .
             Reaction in the column
    • Write an equation for a reaction that took place in the column. 
    • Complete treatment of the water sample required passing it through another resin. Give the formula of this resin. 
    • Explain why a river water sample that has been treated using resins may still require boiling to make it safe for drinking. 

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  1. Permanent
  2.   
    • Addition of washing soda/NaCO3✓1
    • Ca2+and Mg2+ precipitates as carbonates which can be filtered off✓
  3.   
    •  Resin
      RNH3+OH(s) + NO3(aq) or Cl→ RNH3+NO(s)(Clif its over used) + OH(aq)
    • RSO3H  OR RCOOH  
    •   
      • Resin does not kill bacteria/pathogen
      • Boiling kills
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