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State five social factors which led to the European scramble for colonies in Africa. 

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  1. Spread of Christianity by missionaries
  2. Support by influential people in Europe e.g. David Living Stone, William Mackinon, Karl Peters, W.T. Stead
  3. The need to settle their surplus population
  4. Missionaries demand for protection
  5. Humanitarianism in Europe/desire to abolish slave trade which was inhuman
  6. Racism/European superiority complex/civilization/paternalism
  7. Exploration and adventure
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