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Explain five reasons why Britain was the first country in the world to industrialize.

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  1. Britain enjoyed political unity/ peace/ stability/ strong leadership for a long time which favored industrial activities.
  2. She had massive wealth from trade/ enough capital/ external capital from colonies abroad/ America and Africa which was invested in industry.
  3. Britain had military might particularly the navy which protected her merchants/ guarded trade routes in the sea.
  4. Due to the Agrarian Revolution which had taken root there, there was reliable supply of raw materials required in their industries/ food for industrial workers/ raw materials from her colonies.
  5. Availability of a good banking/ insurance system which provided credit facilities and security against losses/ accidents in industry/ internal capital.
  6. There were mineral resources such as coal which was a source of energy.
  7. Availability of labor/ unskilled labor which was provided by the people who migrated to urban areas due to displacement by land enclosure system.
  8. Large population in the country provided ready market/ internal/ domestic/ local market for her products.
  9. Britain had good transport system like roads and railway which ensured safe and timely transportation of raw materials.
  10. Britain exported her products to European countries and her colonies in Africa/ external market.
  11. Britain had a policy of free trade without customs which favored industrialization.
  12. The existence of cottage industries which laid the foundation for industrialization.
  13. Scientific and technological inventions like the steam engine and electricity provided more reliable source of energy.
  14. The British government provided the necessary support/ goodwill and favorable policies for industrial growth.
  15. Existence of rich merchants who were willing to invest in industries.
  16. Availability of skilled labor to man machines in industries.
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