Tuesday, 21 September 2021 06:21

Climate - Class 6 Social Studies Revision Notes

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What is Climate?

  • Climate is the average weather conditions of a place


Weather instruments

  • Are devices used to measure and record conditions and changes in the elements of weather Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions of a place at a given time
Weather instrument Weather element
Barometer Air pressure/atmospheric pressure
Anemometer Speed of wind
Windvane Wind direction
Hygrometer  Humidity
Windsock Strength and wind direction
Raingauge Amount of rainfall
Sunshine recorder  Sunshine intensity
Thermometer  Temperature

 



Factors that influence climate in Eastern Africa

  1. Latitude
  2. Relief and altitude
  3. Nearness to large water bodies
  4. Prevailing winds
  5. Shape of the coastline

 

  1. Latitude

    • This refers to how far a place is from the equator.
    • Eastern sfrica region is between the tropics
    • The region receives warm temperatures
    • Latitude affects;
      1. Temperatures
      2. Rainfall
      3. Winds
  2. Relief(altitude)

    • Relief refers to the nature of the land
    • Relief refers to the presence of physical features such as hills, mountains, plateau and plains.
    • Altitude is the height of a place above sea level
    • Altitude influences
      1. Temperature
      2. Rainfall
      3. Wind
      4. Air pressure

        Exercise: Draw a relief rainfall diagram

  3. Nearness to large water bodies.

    • Areas near large water bodies receives convectional rainfall
    • Distance from large water bodies affects rainfall,humidity,temperature and winds breeze.
    • Breezes are cool winds meant to lower temperatures of where they blow towards.

      Exercise: Draw convectional rainfall and sea and land breezes

  4. Prevailing Winds

    • Wind is moving air or air in motion
    • They transfer water vapour from one area to another.
    • Winds that have great effects on climatte of Eastern Africa are seasonal(monsoons)
    • North-east monsoons bring short rains
    • South-east monsoon brings long rains

  5. Shape of the coastline

    • Winds blowing parallel to the coast do not cause rainfall
    • Winds blowing directly to the coast causes a lot of rainfall


Climatic regions of Eastern Africa

  • A climatic region is a large area that experiences more or less similar climatic conditions
  • They include:
    1. The equatorial climatic
    2. The modified climatic
    3. The tropical climatic
    4. Mountain climatic
    5. Semi arid climatic
    6. Desert climatic

 

  1. Equatorial climatic region

    • Covers
      1. South Western Uganda
      2. North Western Tanzania
    • Is slightly modified due to altitude and latitude

      Characteristics
      1. High rainfall above 1500mm
      2. Receives convectional rainfall
      3. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year
      4. High temperatures throughout the year
      5. Annual average temperatures of about 26 ̊ C
      6. High humidity throughout the year
      7. Two rainfall peaks between April-May and November-December
      8. Small range of temperatures

  2. Modified equatorial climatic region

    • is modified because of the high relief(altitude)
    • covers;
      1. Lake region
      2. Coastal region
      3. Western Uganda
      4. Western South Sudan
      5. Rwanda
      6. Burundi

        Characteristics
        1. High rainfall between 1000m-2000m
        2. High temperatures due to low altitude
        3. Convectional rainfall due to nearness to large water bodies
        4. High humidity due to high rate of evaporation
        5. Long rains between March-May
        6. Short rains between October-December

  3. Tropical climatic region

    • Also called savannah climate
    • Is the largest climatic region of Eastern Africa
    • It lies between the tropics
    • covers;
      1. Large parts of Tanzania and Ethiopia
      2. Northern Uganda
      3. South Sudan
      4. Nyika Plateau in Kenya

        Characteristics
        1. Has hot wet seasons and cool dry seasons
        2. Cooler seasons have no rainfall hence remains dry
        3. Hotter seasons receives a lot of rainfall hence they are wet
        4. Rainfall is between 750mm – 1200mm
        5. Has two distinct rainy seasons
          1. Long rains between march-may
          2. Short rains between september-october
        6. Temperature average is 15 ̊ C – 15 ̊ C

  4. Mountain climatic region

    • Experienced on slopes of high mountains and highlands

      Characteristics
      1. High relief rainfall betwee 1100mm – 250mm
      2. Cool/low temperatures due to high altitude
      3. Leeward sides are cool and dry
      4. Peaks of high mountains are permanently covered by snow

  5. Semi-arid climatic region

    • Covers
      1. Eastern and northern kenya
      2. North-Eastern Uganda
      3. Central sudan
      4. Eritrea
      5. Somalia
      6. Djibouti
      7. Central Tanzania

        Characteristics
        1. Low and unreliable rainfall 250mm – 750mm
        2. High temperatures throughout the year 21 ̊ C – 28 ̊ C
        3. Prolonged dry season of over six months
        4. Low humidity
        5. High temperatures at day time and low temperatures at night
  6. Desert climatic region

    • Covers
      1. Sudan
      2. Northern Ethiopia
      3. North-Eastern Somalia
      4. Central part of Northern Kenya
      5. Parts of Eritrea
      6. Parts of Djibouti
        Characteristics
        1. Low/unreliable rainfall below 250mm per year
        2. Rainfall is irregular
        3. High temperatures of upto 40 ̊
        4. Clear/cloudless skies
        5. Very high diurnal range of temperatures

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