Tuesday, 21 September 2021 09:43

People And Population - Class 6 Social Studies Revision Notes

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Classification of communities in Eastern Africa into language groups

  1. The bantu
  2. The nilotes
  3. The cushites
  4. The semites

 

  1. The Bantus

    • Are the largest language group in eastern africa
    • Originally homeland was DRC, cameroon,zaire
    • Are mainly found in kenya,uganda, tanzania,rwanda and burundi.
    • Tanzania has the largest number of bantu
    • Main reasons for migration was to find fertile lands for cultivation
    • Are mainly cultivators
      Country Community/Tribe/ Ethnic Group
      KENYA Abaluhya,abagusii,abakuria,agikuyu,ameru,aembu,akamba,ambeere,taita,mijikenda,pokomo 
      TANZANIA Chagga,sukuma,gogo,hehe,ngoni,yao,nyamwezi,vinza,ha,zaramo,pare,fipa
      UGANDA Baganda,banyore,basoga,bagishu, batoro,banyoro
      RWANDA Hutu, Tutsi
      BURUNDI Hutu

      Reasons for the Migration of the Bantu

      1. They wanted fertile farming land
      2. Escape from hostile neighbours
      3. Population pressure
      4. Outbreak of pests and diseases
      5. Drought and famine
      6. Internal disputes and conflicts

  2. The Nilotes

    • Is the second largest group in Eastern Africa
    • Originated from Nile valley,Bhar-El-Ghezal in South Sudan
    • They were pastoralists
    • Mainly migrated in search of pasture and water
    • They also practised fishing along the rivers
    • Are divided into three sub groups namely

      1. River-lake Nilotes

        - Live near lakes and rivers. main economic acitvity is fishing.

        Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
        KENYA  Luo
        UGANDA  Acholi, labwar, japadhola, langi, alur, lughbava
        TANZANIA  Luo
        sOUTH SUDAN Shilluk, anuk, nuer, dinka
      2. Highland Nilotes

        - mainly live in highland areas of eastern africa. The main economic activity is farming and pastoralism.

        Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
        KENYA  Kipsigis, nandi, tugen, keiyo, pokot, marakwet, sabaot, ogiek ,dorobo.
        UGANDA  Sebei, sabiny
        TANZANIA  Datoga
      3. Plain Nilotes

        - mainly live in the plain areas of eastern africa. Main economic activity is pastoralism/ nomadic pastoralism/ cattle rearing

        Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
        KENYA Samburu, maasai, turkana, njemps, iteso, el-molo-suk
        UGANDA Karamanjong, jie, iteso
        TANZANIA Maasai
        SUDAN Yoposa
        ETHIOPIA Baria, gumuz

        Reasons for the migration of the Nilotes

        1. Need for pasture and water
        2. Epidaemic (outbreak of diseases)
        3. Hostile neighbours i.e. external attacks
        4. Internal conflicts/disputes
        5. Overpopulation
        6. Drought and famine

  3. The Cushites

    • They are pastoralists
    • Migrated into Eastern Africa from Saudi Arabia
    • Main reason for migration was to search for water and pasture for their animals.
    • They are divided into;

      1. Eastern Cushites


        Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
        KENYA Somali, orma, boran, burji, gabbra, rendille, galla, boni
        ETHIOPIA Rendille, afar, sindamo, galla, danakil, oromo, ogaden
        SOMALIA Boran, somali, rendille, oromo, ogaden, hawiyah, gurreh, danakil.
      2. Southern Cushites

        - Mostly lives in Central Tanzania and Lower Tana River regions of Kenya
         
        Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
        KENYA Sanye, dahalo
        TANZANIA Hawa iraqw, mbugu, burugu, avamanik, sandawe, hadza, makogodi

        Reasons for the migration of the Cushites

        1. Need for pasture and water
        2. Outbreak of diseases epidemics
        3. Drought and femine
        4. Hostile neighbours
        5. Internal conflicts
        6. Overpopulation
        7. Spirit of adventure
        8. Southern cushites

  4. The Semites

    • Migrated from South Arabia and Asia into the Horn of Africa
    • They crossed into africa through the red sea
    • Others came through the Indian Ocean
    • Mainly migrated looking for trade items and trading opportunity
    • They are found in kenya, ethiopia, eritrea and sudan
      Country Community/Tribe/Ethnic Group
      KENYA Nubians
      SUDAN Nubians, arabs, amharas,
      ERITREA Tigreans, amharas
      SOMALIA Arabs
      ETHIOPIA Falasha, arabs, tigreans, amharas, baggara

      Reasons for the migration of the Semites

      1. Need for better trading opportunities
      2. Search for trade goods
      3. Overpopulation
      4. Family and clan disputes
      5. Spirit of adventure
      6. Outbreak of human and animal diseases
      7. Need for pasture and water for their animals
      8. Drought and femine


Effects of Migration and Settlement

  1. Displacement of smaller communities
    1. Agikuyu displaced gumba and athi in central kenya
    2. Abagusii displaced by luo and kalenjins
    3. Bantu displaced by galla from shungwaya
  2. Conflicts between communities
    1. Abagusii and the luo
    2. Galla and bantu
    3. Ngoni and the people of Southern Tanzania
  3. Population increase
  4. Intermarriage between communities
  5. Adoption of economic practises among communities e.g.
    1. bantu learnt cattle keeping from nilotes and cushites learnt cultivation from the bantus
  6. Introduction of new items of trade
  7. Borrowing of different words led to development of new languages
  8. Borrowing of cultural practises e.g.
    1. Bantu borrowed circumcision from the cushites
    2. Bantus borrowed age-set systems from the cushites


Population Distribution in Eastern Africa

  • Population refers to the number of people living in a given place
  • Population distribution refers to how people are spread over in an area
  • Population of Eastern Africa is not evenly distributed
  • Some areas are;
    1. Sparsely populated
    2. Medium/moderately populated
    3. Densely populated
  • Population density is the number of people living in a square km

Densely populated areas of Eastern Africa.

  1. The highlands region
  2. The lake basin
  3. Major towns and cities
  4. Coastal areas of Kenya and Tanzania
  5. Rwanda
  6. Mining areas

Sparsely populated areas of Eastern Africa

  1. North eastern uganda
  2. Central and northern tanzania
  3. Southern and western ethiopia
  4. Large parts of eritrea
  5. North eastern kenya
  6. Most of somalia
  7. Mountain tops
  8. Flood plains
  9. Northern sudan


Factors Influencing Population Distribution in Eastern Africa

  1. Climate i.e.rainfall and temperature
  2. Soils
  3. Relief
  4. Drainage
  5. Economic activitie
  6. Vegetation
  7. Government policy
  8. Pests and diseases
  9. Political factors(security)

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