Monday, 13 September 2021 11:27

People And Population - Class 8 Social Studies Revision Notes

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Theories of Human Origin

  1. Mythical Theory
  2. Theory of Creation
  3. Theory of Evolution

 

  1. Mythical theory

    • It is based on folktales told by various communities on how they originated.
      Examples
      1. Luo - Claim to be descendants of their ancestor Ramogi who lived on Ramogi hill.
      2. Kalenjin - Claim to be descendants of the first Orkoiyot ( medicine man) called Miot.
      3. Wagiriama - Claim their ancestors lived at a place called Muyeye in Malindi.They dispersed from Muyeye and formed the nine (9) sub tribes as they migrated.
      4. Agikuyu - Claim to have descended from Gikuyuand Mumbi Who lived at Mukurwe wa Nagathanga.
      5. Baganda - Claim to be descendants of Kintu who lived on Mt Elgon.

  2. The Creation Theory

    • It is based on Religious beliefs.
    • It explains that all human beings and other creatures were created by a super natural creator, God among the Christians and Allah among the Muslims.

  3. The Evolution Theory

    • This is a scientific view which explains that human beings developed slowly ( evolved ) from primitive ape – like creature to what they are today. This view was first suggested by a scientist called Charles Darwin.
    • Archaeology is the study of human evolution.
    • To understand the evolution of man archaeologists study:-
      1. Tools
      2. Plants and animal remains (Fossils) of early creatures.

Study of Human Evolution

  • The earliest known human-like creature was called Australopithecus.
  • The period between the timeof Homo habillis and the time of Homo Sapiens is referred to as the stone age because the creatures mainly used stone tools.
  • These creatures practiced the following activities:-
    1. Hunting and fishing.
    2. Gathering roots and wild berries for food.
    3. Painting and making ornaments.

Note
Stone age is divided into three stages:-

  1. Early stoneage.
  2. Middle stone age.
  3. Late stone age.

    Stone age
    man
    Where they were found.
    Homo habilis


    Homo erectus

    Olduvai Gorge.
    Near Lake Turkana.
    Olorgesaille in Kenya
    Hadar in Ethiopia
    North West shores of Lake Turkana
    Isimilia in Tanzania.

    Homo sapiens Ngaloba in Tanzania.
    Eliye springs west of Lake Turkana.
    Bodo in Ethiopia.
    Kanjera in Kenya.
    Omo valley in Ethiopia.


    early man


Migration

  • Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
  • Migration within a country is called Internal migration.
  • Migration from one country to another is known as external migration.

Types of Modern Migration

  • The four main types of Migration taking place in Kenya are:-
    1. Rural – urban migration.
    2. Urban – Rural migration.
    3. Rural – Rural migration
    4. Urban – Urban migration

 

  1. Rural – Urban migration

    • This is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas.
      Reason:
      1. Search for employment.
      2. Shortage of farming land in some rural areas.
      3. Opportunity to engage actively in trading activities.
      4. Availability of better recreational facilities and good infrastructure.
  2. Urban – Rural migration

    • This is the movement of people from urban centers to rural centers.
      Reasons
      1. Retirement from employment.
      2. Overcrowding and high cost of living.
      3. Difficulties experienced in towns.
  3. Rural – Rural migration

    • This is the movement of people from one rural area to another.
    • Note: Most rural – rural migrations are permanent especially in cases of movement to settlement schemes.
      Reasons
      1. Resettlement of people displaced by the construction of big dams which form lakes.
      2. Establishment of settlement schemes (irrigation schemes) which attract many people from other densely populated rural areas.
      3. Settlement of landless people by government .
      4. Seasonal migrations by nomadic pastoralists in search of pasture andwater.
      5. Search of employment in large plantations.
      6. Mining activities which may force people to move away from their original homes.
      7. Government actions which may force people to move away from areas where they had settled in order to conserve the environment e.g. Mau water catchment forest.
      8. Political unrest which may cause people to relocate from one place to another (IDPs Internally displaced persons)
      9. Natural disasters e.g Floods which may force people to move temporarily to safer higher grounds.
  4. Urban – Urban migrations

    • This is the movement of people from one urban center to another.
    • Note: These migrations occur in a small scale .
      Reasons
      1. Job transfers from one town to another.
      2. Opportunities for business people to expand their businesses in bigger towns.
      3. Religious pilgrimages which may result in people settling down in the towns they visit.

Effects of Migration

Effects on urban areas

  1. Unemployment.
  2. Increase in crime.
  3. Increase in Immorality. Eg. - prostitution, HIV / AIDS and STIs
  4. Development of poor housing - slums (shanties)
  5. Competition (strains) for social amenities eg. Hospitals , schools etc.
  6. Overcrowding
  7. Environmental problems e.g. air pollution and water pollution.
  8. Increase in labour supply.

Effects on rural areas:

  1. Reduced pressure on land.
  2. Shortage of labour (negatively affecting agriculture).
  3. Improved economic conditions (reduction in production).
  4. Reversal of roles.
  5. Improved agricultural production (introduction of new farming methods).

NOTE:
Immigration: Is the migration of people from one country into another.
Emigration: Is the migration of people out of a country.

Positive effects of immigration

  1. Foreign investments which offer employment opportunities.

Negative effects of immigration

  1. Influx of people from war-torn countries encourages the movement of illegal arms into the countries which are used by criminals
  2. Refugees in our country affects the environment as they clear forests for firewood.
  3. The foreign cultures of these people end up affecting our cultures negatively.

 



Settlement 

Settler Farming in Kenya

  • Europeans settler farming was practiced in the white highlands(crown lands)
    Examples:
Region Area covered.
Central highlands  Kiambu, Thika, Murang'a, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Kirinyaga.
Western highlands. Kericho, Bureti, Sotik, Nyamira, Uasin Gishu, Kisii.
Central rift valley Nakuru, Laikipia, Narok, Kajiado, Molo, Naivasha, Koibatek(Eldama Ravine).
Eastern Meru , Konza, Embu, Machakos

 
NB: The colonial government took away large areas of African land and allocated it to the white settlers.

Europeans settler farming in Kenya.

  • The European settlers farming took African land.
  • They mostly practiced large scale farming.
  • They introduced cash crop farming and new livestock breed.
  • Their farming methods were mechanized: they used commercial fertilizers and applied pesticides to crops.
  • Africans were used as the source of labour on the settlers farms.
  • rotation on their farms and divided ranching area into paddocks which helped.
  • They practiced crop to control grazing.

What the settlers farmers were engaged in?

  1. Mixed farming (growing of crops and keeping of livestocks).
  2. Plantation farming (growing crops in a large scale farm). i.e. sisal, tea, coffee, wheat, maize, pyrethrum, cotton, sugarcane.
  3. Dairy farming, animal kept were: hare ford, Aberdeen angus, chorales, Galloway.
  4. Horticulture.
  5. Fruits grown : oranges, limes, lemons, pineapples.
  6. Vegetables grown:onions, carrots, tomatoes, legumes,cabbages.
  7. Poultry farming-chicken breed kept were; rhode island red, white leghorn light Sussex among others.

Effects of Settler Farming in Kenya

Positive effects Negative effects
  1. Introduction of new crops.
  2. Introduction of new livestock.
  3. Improved infrastructures.
  4. Establishment of processing industries.
  5. Introduction of agricultural co-operatives.
  6. Establishments and growth of towns.
  7. Introduction of cross breeding in animals
  8. Introduction of modern method of farming.
  9. Introduction of use of fertilizers and improved seeds.
  10. Introduction of plantation (large scale) farming.
  1. Loss of fertile lands by the Africans.
  2. High poverty levels among the Africans.
  3. Most Africans become squatters.
  4. Forced labour among the Africans.
  5. Racism; Europeans looked down upon the Africans because of their skin colour.
  6. Congestion of Africans in areas with low productivity.

 

Settlement Schemes

Areas of settlement include:

Sotik,Endebes,Kaptagat,Matunda,Machakos,Lake,Kenyatta,Molo,Ainamoi Kitobo,Naitiri,Cherengany,Songhor/MuhoroniEldama Ravine,Chepsiri etc

Reasons for the establishment of settlement schemes in Kenya

  1. To settle the landless people.
  2. To ease congestion in the already populated areas.
  3. To make land ownership in Kenya fair.
  4. To encourage people to practice commercial farming in areas that had been occupied by settler farmers.
  5. To increase food production in Kenya.
  6. To speed up land ownership in Kenya.
  7. To open up areas which had not been settled in.

Benefits of settlement schemes

  1. Increased food and cash production in the country.
  2. Provision of of land to the landless (squatters)
  3. It has reduced congestion on land that had high population densities.
  4.  It has helped to raise the living standards of the people.
  5. Agricultural exports from various settlement schemes has helped to boost the economy of our country.
  6. It has helped to open up the areas that had not be settled in.

Problems facing settlement schemes in Kenya

  1. Lack of adequate capital to invest in improved farming practices.
  2. Congestion in some parts of the settlement schemes due to population increase.
  3. Reduction in the size of land due to land fragmentation.
  4. People cut down trees to create room for crop growing and settlement (De-forest ration)
  5. Over cultivation in densely populated schemes has led to loss of soil fertility
  6. Poor transport network in the settlement schemes.
  7. Lack of adequate markets for the farm produce.

Irrigation Schemes in Kenya

Irrigation refers to the application water to crops through artificial means in
order to facilitate their growth.
Example

MweaTebere Perkerra
  • Rice (main)
  • French bean
  • Tomatoes
  • Maize
  • Soya beans
  • Vegetables
  • Seed Maize
  • Onions
  • Paw paws
  • Chilies
  • Water melons

 

 
Mwea Tebere Irrigation Schemes

  • Established ii 1954. (It is the oldest in the county)
  • Mainly started to settle the landless who lost their lands to the white settlers.
  • Located in Kirinyaga county.
  • It is the largest irrigation scheme in Kenya.
  • Main crop grown is Rice.
  • Sources of water for irrigation are:- River Nyamindi,River Thiba: Both are tributaries of R. Tana.
  • Methods of irrigation used is Basin irrigation which involves flooding the rice plot(rice paddies)
  • Canals are used to direct water from the rivers to the shallow basins
  • Water flows into the basin through gravitational flow.

Perkerra Irrigation Scheme

  • Located in Marigat, Baringo county.
  • Mainly started to put more land under cultivation.
  • Sources of water include:- River Perkera and Lake Baringo
  • Methods of irrigation used isFurrow method.
  • Furrows carry water from main canal to the crops which grow on the ridges
    Sluice gates are used to control or regulate the flow of water into the farm.

Contributions of the scheme to the economy

Mwea Tebere Perkerra
  • Produces 80% of Kenya`s rice
  • Offering employment
  • Has increased food production
  • Has led to improvement of infrastructure and growth of towns egWanguru town.
  • Has raised people`s living standards
  • Income generation
  • Increase in economic activity
  • Creation of employment
  • Led to growth of Marigat town.

Note: Main problem is reduction of water into the plot during the
dry season.


 Problems facing irrigation farming in Kenya

  1. Shortage of water during dry season.
  2. Siltation of the canals which reduces the amount of water that can flow to them.
  3. Late and irregular payments to the farmers from the irrigation board.
  4. Presence of weed.
  5. Some irrigation schemes are affected by floods during rainy seasons in places like Bunyala.
  6. Stagnant water is a health hazard eg. Spread of malariaand bilharzias.
  7. Lack of adequate capital.
  8. Mismanagement of finances and resources.
  9. Some irrigation schemes are far from the market which increases transport costs.
  10. Competition from imported, cheap farm produce.
  11. Presence of crop diseases and pests.

Horticultural Farming

  1. Horticulture - Is the growing of vegetables, fruits and flowers for sale.
  2. Viticulture - Growing of fruits only.
  3. Floriculture - Growing of flowers only.

Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) is a body established by the government to promote horticulture (market gardening)

The HCDA :-

  1. Advices the farmers.
  2. Provides storage facilities.
  3. Searches for external marks for products.

Crops grown in horticulture farming

Flowers Carnations , roses , lilies , orchids.
Fruits  Oranges, lemons, apricot, paw paws, grapes, limes,
avocados, tangerines, passion fruits, peaches, apples, pears,
plums, loquats, bananas, watermelons, strawberries.
Vegetables Cabbages, spinach, lentils, spruce, sprouts, broccoli, peas,
French beans, cauliflower, carrots, turnips, groundnuts,
tomatoes, cucumber, green peas, chilies, onion, lettuce.

 
 Contribution of horticultural farming to the economy of Kenya

  1. Earning of foreign exchange.
  2. Creation of employment opportunities.
  3. Farmers earn regular income.
  4. Development of infrastructure.
  5. Availability of food.
  6. Crops provide raw materials for fruit and vegetable canning.
  7. Better use of land.

Problems facing horticultural farming in Kenya

  1. Bad weather.
  2. Poor infrastructure.
  3. High fees charged to farmers who export their farm produce (high tarrifs)
  4. High transport costs.
  5. High cost of farm inputs e.g. fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
  6. Lack of storage.
  7. Restrictions by importance
  8. Competition from other producers e.g. Netherlands.
  9. Inadequate capital to purchase farm equipment and inputs.
  10. Lack of co-operatives.
  11. Low export demand
  12. Poor marketing.

Horticultural farming in Kenya and Netherlands

KENYA NETHERLANDS
Most farmers are located near towns Most farms are established on reclaimed land.
Most farms are small scale apart from the flower farms Almost all the horticultural farms are large scale.
Poor means of infrastructure Modernized infrastructure
Kenya is far from European market Netherlands is centrally located in Europe.
Lack of adequate capital to promote horticultural farming Adequate capital to scientifically manage the horticultural farms.
Fertile volcanic soils that are favorable for crop growing. Sandy coastal soils are used as they drain well.
Little mechanization in the farms Highly mechanized farms.
Labor intensive. Capital intensive.
Horticultural technology is relatively new World`s most successful horticultural producing country.



Fishing in Kenya

  • Fishing is the practice of removing or harvesting fish from water.
  • Fishing is a major economic activity for those people living next to rivers , lakes or oceans which have fish.

Major fishing grounds in Kenya
Fishing grounds are places where fish are caught.

Groups of fishing grounds

  1. Inland fishing grounds.
  2. Marine / sea fishing grounds.
INLAND FISHING GROUNDS MARINE FISHING GROUNDS
Lake Turkana Lamu
L. Baringo Kiunga
L. Victoria Malindi
L. Naivasha Mombasa
L. Jipe Kilifi
L. Chala Ukunda
L. Masinga Shimoni
Kiambere dam Kipini


Note:
Inland fishing is also carried out in big rivers such as:-
R. Tana,R.Sondu-Miriu,R. Yala,R.Nzoia,R. Nyando,R.Kuja.

Fish farming is the raring of fish in fish ponds and dams.

Areas where fish farming is carried out.
Sagana,Borabu,Bamburi near Mombasa,Aruba dam,Kiboswa

Types of fish caught

Inland waters Marine waters
  •  Tilapia
  • Nile perch
  • Trout
  • Lung fish
  • Shell fish
  • Cat fish
  • Black bass
  • Mud fish
  • Dagaa (Omena)
  • Salmon
  • Snappers
  •  Kingfish
  • Sardines
  • Tuna
  • Bonito
  • Black Skin
  • Queen fish
  • Mullet
  • Sail fish
  • Parrot fish
  • Sharks
  • Crustaceans eg
    crabs,oysters,shrimps,lo bsters.


 Problems facing fish farming

  1. Presence of predators e.g. snakes, birds, cats.
  2. Insufficient supply of water in ponds especially during the dry season.
  3. Limited market
  4. Presence of unwanted weeds e.g. water hyacinth in L. Victoria.
  5. Lack of adequate funds for most farmers.
  6. Use of traditional methods of harvesting.
  7. Inadequate refrigeration facilities.

Comparison of fish farming between Kenya and Japan

Kenya Japan
Lack of adequate capital. There is adequate capital.
Most farmers use traditional methods of fishing and harvesting. Fish farming is highly mechanized.
Limited market for the fish products There is a large market for fish which encourages the industry
Insufficient supply of water e.g. during the dry season Enough supply of water through out the year.
Fish is mainly consumed locally Fishing is done mainly for export.



Mining

Mining is the removal (extraction) of a mineral from where it has naturally been formed.

The main minerals in Kenya include

  1. Soda ash
  2. Gemstones
  3. Diatomite
  4. Flourspar
  5. Sand
  6. Salt
  7. Limestone
  8. Marble
Mineral   Where mined Uses
Fluorspar
Method of mining:
Open cast
(Quarrying)
  • Kimwarer in Kerio Valley.
  • Strengthening steel and aluminum.
  • Making tooth paste.
  • Used in refineries.
  • Making cans, sufurias and cooking pans
  • Making sulphuric acid.
Limestone.
Method of mining
Open cast
(quarrying)
  •  Bamburi in Mombasa
  • Athi river
  • Bissil in Kajiado
  • Koru – Kisumu county
  • West pokot
  • Homa hills – Homa bay county
  •  Used in cement making.
  • Lime extracted from Homa hills and Koru are used as animal feed.
Diatomite.
Method of mining
Open cast
(quarrying)
  • Kariandusi near gilgil.
  • Gicheru on the floor of Nyandarua ranges
  • Making chalk.
  • Lining hot furnaces
  • Act as sound proof material.Making plaster used in hospitals.
  •  Used in dry cleaning clothes.

Gemstone.

Method of mining:
Open cast method.

  • Mainly mined at Voi and Mwatate at the Coast.
  • Used mainly in the making of ornaments.

Marble

Method of mining:
Open cast (quarrying)

  • Athi River.
  • Kerio Valley
  • Used to decorate flours and walls of the building.
Salt.
  • Shores of Lake Magadi.
  • Ngomeni
  • Fundisa near Malindi.
  • Adding flavor to food
  • It is a food preservative
  • Soap making
  • Glass making

 

Contribution of minerals to the economy of Kenya

  1. Mineral exports earn Kenya foreign exchange.
  2. Mining is a source of employment to many people.
  3. It has led to the growth of towns e.g. Magadi.
  4. It has led to the establishment of industries that use minerals as their raw materials.
  5. Availability of minerals saves the country`s foreign exchange that could have been used to import them.
  6. Mining has led to the development of social services like schools , hospitals and sports facilities in the mining areas.
  7. Mining is a source of revenue to the government since the mining companies pay taxes to the government.
  8. It has led to the development of transport links of infrastructure.
  9. Mining has led to the improvement of the standards of living of people working in the mines and mineral – related industries.

Effects of mining on the environment

  1. Pollution of the environment.
  2. Land degradation.
  3. Destruction of vegetation during the mining process.
  4. Clearing of vegetation during mining leads to soil erosion.
  5. Open pits filled with water are a health hazards to people and animals.
  6. Release of harmful gases in the air may result to global warming.
  7. Walls of mines sometimes collapse and cause accidents to miners.


Forestry

  • Forestry is the practice of establishing forests and caring for trees.
  • It also involves paper harvesting and good use of trees.

Types of Forests in Kenya

There are two main types of forests found in Kenya. These are:

  1. Natural forests.
  2. Planted forests.

 

  1. Natural forests

    This are forests which have grown on their own.
    They are divided as follows:
    1. Highland rain forests.
      • They grow in the high rainfall areas e.g.Slopes of mountains, Hills and highlands
        Examples
        Kakamega,Nyambane,Ndare,Kaimosi,Mt.Kenya,Timboroa,Nyandarua,Mau, Malava,Mt.Marsabit,Ngong hills,Mt. Elgon,Ndaragwa.
    2. Lowland rain forest.
      • Found in high rainfall areas of the coast.
        Examples:
        Witu,Jilore,Gongeni,Boni,Arabuko – Sokoke
    3. Mangrove forest
      • They grow in salty waters of the Indian ocean.
      • They grow along the coast in: Kwale,Kilifi,Lamu,Malindi

  2. Planted forest

    • They have been established through efforts of human beings.
    • They are found in high rainfall areas where afforestration programs are being carried out.
    • These forests are found in the following areas:
      1. Slopes of Mt. Kenya around Meru and Embu.
      2. Cherengani hills
      3. Limuru
      4. Elburgon
      5. Timboroa
      6. Molo
      7. Turbo
      8. Slopes of Mt Elgon
      9.  Lari
      10. Njabini
      11. Kaptagat
      12. Londiani
      13. Moi`s bridge
      14. Nandi hills

Types of trees found in planted and natural forests

Natural forest Planted forest
  • Mvule
  • Camphor
  • Elgon teak
  • Mahogany
  • Meru Oak
  • Cypress
  • Cedar
  • Eucalyptus
  • Pine
  • They are mainly hardwood
  • They grow in natural forests
  • They take long to mature
  • They are mainly softwood
  • They mature quickly
  • They have straight trunks.


Problems Facing Forests in Kenya

  1. Attacks by pests and diseases which affects their rate of growth.
  2. Outbreaks of fires especially during the dry season.
  3. Deforestration due to increased demand for land for farming and settlement.
  4.  Increased demand for forest product e.g. timber and pulp.
  5. Need for charcoal and firewood.
  6. Poor reafforestration programs.

Effects of Deforestration in Kenya

Deforestration is the cutting down of forest trees faster than they are replaced
through reafforestration.
Effects

  1. Deforestration affects the sources of water leading to reduced water supply.
  2. Cutting down of trees leads to spread of the desert.
  3. Reduction in forest production.
  4. Increase soil erosion.
  5. Loss of the species
  6. Rural communities are affected since some of them use forest products for their survival.
  7. Change in climate.

Forest Conservation Measures in Kenya

Forest conservation is the careful harvesting and good use of trees found in
the forest.

Conservation measures includes:

  1. Establishment of tree nurseries.
  2. Gazzetement of forest reserves by the government to protect the forests.
  3. Organizing and supporting tree planting activities (afforestration).
  4. Encouragement by the government for the public to undertake replanting activities.
  5. Discouraging the use of charcoal.
  6. Growing of trees alongside crops in the farm (Agro-forestry).
  7. Informing the public on the importance of trees and the and the need to plant more trees on their farms (awareness campaigns).
  8. Establishment of environmental clubs in schools.
  9. Banning tree activities.


Wildlife and Tourism

Wildlife refers to plants , birds and animals in their natural environment. (habitat).
Tourism is the travelling to other places of interest for pleasure.

Importance of wildlife

  1. Earns the country foreign exchange from tourists who visit the country.
  2. Creates jobs for many people who work in game parks, game researves ,and tourist hotels.
  3. Leads to economic growth of the areas they are found.
  4. Promotes development of local industries e.g. stone and wood curving which are mainly bought by tourists.
  5. Wildlife is an important national heritage.

Tourists attraction in Kenya and Switzerland

Similarities between Kenya and Switzerland

  1. Both countries have beautiful sceneries.
  2. Both countries have a rich cultural heritage which is a major tourist attraction.
  3. Both have good accommodation facilities for the tourists e.g. hotels.
  4. Both countries enjoy relative peace.
  5. Both countries have game parks.

Differences between Kenya and Switzerland

  1. Wildlife is the main tourist attraction in Kenya while Beautiful scenery is the main tourist attraction in Switzerland.
  2. Tourists are attracted by the warm climate ion Kenya while in Switzerland tourists are attracted by the summer and winter seasons.
  3. Transport and communication is highly developed in Switzerland and thus attracts tourists. In Kenya, The transport and communication is NOT highly developed.


Industries

An industry is a place where raw materials are changed from one form to another ,processed and assembled.

Types of industries

  1. Processing industries.
  2. Manufacturing industry
  3. Assembly industries
  4. Service industries.

 

  1. Processing industries
    • They are also called primary industries.
    • Involved in the first stage of changing raw materials from one form to another.
    • Examples in Kenya : Maize, milk, fish processing etc.
  2. Manufacturing industries
    • They are also known as Secondary industries.
    • They use raw materials to make final products.
    • Examples:
      1. Sugar from a processing industry taken to another factory to make sweets, bread or soft drinks.
      2. Steel rolling milk
      3. Glass making industry
      4. Insecticide industry
      5. Medicine making
      6. Cement factories
      7. Textile industry
      8. Shoe factories
      9. Oil refineries.
  3. Assembly industries
    • They are also known as secondary industry.
    • They put together parts that have been produced elsewhere to make new products.
    • Examples include:-
      1. Vehicles
      2. Radios
      3. Bicycles
      4. Televisions etc.
  4. Service industry
    • They are also known as tertiary industries.
    • They provide services that other people and other industries need.
    • Examples includes:
      1. Transport and communication.
      2. Banking
      3. Insurance
      4. Repair work
      5. Printing etc.

Factors Influencing Location of Industries

  1. Availability of raw materials.
  2. Availability of capital(money to start a business).
  3. Availability of good means of transport and communication.
  4. Availability of power (electricity).
  5. Availability of regular water supply.
  6. Availability of ready market.
  7. Government policy of location of industry.
  8. Availability of land.
  9. Personal consideration.
  10. Security.
  11. Presence of other industries.

Jua Kali Industries

  • These industries are also known as cottage or fabrication industries
  • It involves making simple items in the open air or under simple shade.
  • They use scrap metals to fabricate different types of cheap products.
  •  Items made include:
    1. Jikos
    2. Jembes
    3. Pans
    4.  Wheelbarrows.
    5. Boxes etc.

Reasons for establishment for Juakali industries in Kenya

  1. To create self employment opportunities.
  2. Products from Jua kali industries are cheap as compared to those made in manufacturing industries.
  3. The sale of the jua kali products earns the people income
    Jua kali industries require little space to house workers.
  4. Some Jua kali industries do not require electricity.
  5. ua kali industries help in cleaning up the environment as they use heap of scrap metals.

Benefits of Jua kali industries

  1. Creation of employment opportunities.
  2. Use of waste iron materials helps in recycling wastes.
  3. They produce many goods that are widely used in homes and schools.
  4. Jua kali products are cheap and long lasting.
  5. Jua kali helps in improving the living standards of people working in the Jua kali industry (sector)
  6. Jua kali is foreign exchange earner.
  7. The use of recycled materials helps in controlling environmental pollution.
  8. Jua kali reduces rural – urban migration as youths in the rural areas get employment in their rural areas.

Problems Facing Jua Kali Industries

  1. Inadequate space: This leads to interruption of their work.
  2. Competition from manufactured goods.
  3. Inadequate capital (cash to start and maintain the business)
  4. High cost of raw materials.
  5. Poor working conditions.
  6. Inadequate supply of water and electricity.
  7. Limited market for the products.

Contribution of Industries to The Economy of Kenya

  1. Creation of jobs(employment opportunities)
  2. Earning of income by the people.
  3. Earning of foreign exchange.
    Making use of local resources(raw materials)
  4. Saving on foreign exchange.
  5. Making it possible to have increased trade locally and with other countries.
  6. Promotion of agriculture due to increased demand of raw materials.
  7. Availability of goods.
  8. Growth of urban centers.
  9. Development of infrastructure e.g. roads.
  10. Increased skills by the people employed in industries.
  11. Encourages countries to join regional blocks.This enhances internationalrelations.
  12. Self sufficiency.

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