Wednesday, 22 September 2021 08:28

Citizenship - Class 6 Social Studies Revision Notes

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  • This is love for ones country
  • It is an element of a good citizen
  • A person who loves his country is called a patriot

Ways of demonstrating patriotism

  1. Obeying the laws
  2. Respecting other people and their property
  3. Participating in elections
  4. Offering services when called upon
  5. Payment of taxes
  6. Keeping the secrets of the countries
  7. Not engaging in corruption
  8. Talking good of our country
  9. Being royal
  10. Attending national celebrations
  11. Giving support to other kenyans

African Socialism

  • It is a national philosophy
  • It was adopted in the year 1965
  • Was introduced by Jomo Kenyatta and Tom Mboya
  • It was established through the introduction of sessional paper no.10 of 1965
  • It emphasizes the spirit of togetherness
  • It aims at achieving political and economic development
  • It encourages equal treatment
  • People are encouraged to live in harmony

Importances of African Socialism

  1. It promotes political democracy
  2. It emphasizes equality of all
  3. It urges people to respect others rights
  4. Encourages the development of mutual responsibilities
  5. It units all kenyans
  6. It encourages equal distribution of wealth
  7. vii. It encourages development in kenya

Democracy And Human Rights


  • It means majority rule
  • In democracy majority of the people’s will is respected

Main principles of democracy

  • Principles of democracy refers to rules that are generally acceptable in governance
  • They include;
    1. Promotion of justice to all
    2. Promotion of equality before the law
    3. Promotion of freedom for all people
    4. Provision of equal opportunities for all citizens
    5. Recongnizing that power belongs to citizens
    6. Respect of people’s rights
    7. In democracy elections are valued

Human Rights

  • These are freedoms and privileges entitled to all Kenyans
  • They are in chapter four of the constitution
  • The section in the constitution with the human rights is called the bill of rights


  1. Right to life
  2. Right to education
  3. Right to information
  4. Right to vote
  5. Right to own property
  6. Right to equality
  7. Right to shelter
  8. Right to food
  9. Right to marry


  • Ability to make choices or do things without being stopped by others
  • They include;
    1. Freedom of worship
    2. Freedom of movement
    3. Freedom of assembly
    4. Freedom of association
    5. Freedom of expression
    6. Freedom from discrimination
    7. Freedom of speech

Rights of People With Special Needs

  1. Right to access special education
  2. Right to equal employment
  3. Right to protected from discrimination
  4. Right to access special equipments
  5. Right to be represented in parliament
  6. Right to equality before the law
  7. Right to fair trial

Responsibility of Persons With Special Needs

  1. They should be law abiding
  2. Respect their leaders
  3. They should not misuse their privaleges
  4. They should not misuse their rights
  5. They should take responsibilities to build the nation
  6. Participating in elections
  7. Take part in community projects
  8. Being elected in leadership positions.

Law Peace and Conflict Resolution


  • Rules guiding people to ensure peace and harmony


  • A state of calmness when there is no war

Conflict resolution

  • This is the process or act of solving or settling a disagreement.

Factors that Promote Peace

  1. Tolerance
  2. Equal opportunities for all
  3. Equal distribution of resources
  4. Dialogue i.e discussing issues to bring understanding
  5. Games and sports
  6. Obeying the laws
  7. Respecting others
  8. Accountability of all people fairly
  9. Listenning to the opinion of others

Factors that Undermine Peace

  • These are things that result to a conflict
    1. Religious differences
    2. Political differences
    3. Civil wars
      Border disputes
    4. Unequal distribution of resources
    5. Robberies and cattle rustling.
    6. Uneployment
    7. Corruption
    8. Unequal application of the rule of law
    9. Intolerance
    10. Violation of people’s rights
    11. Tribalism and nepotism

Importance of Peace

  1. Leads to development
  2. Children are able to learn and go to school freely
  3. Leads to effective governance
  4. Tourism is developed
  5. In a peaceful state people enjoy their rights and freedoms
  6. Promotes good relations between people and country
  7. Promotes businesses and investments
  8. People can move freely to places within

The Government of Kenya

Arms of The Government

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary


  • Held after every five years
  • Supervised by the IEBC – independent electoral and boundaries commission

Functions of IEBC

  1. Register voters
  2. Keeping and revising voters registers
  3. Registering and clearing candidates for elections
  4. Conducting of voters education
  5. Establishing polling stations
  6. Supervising of elections
  7. Counting of votes and announcing results
  8. Review the contituencies boundaries
  9. Supervising and conducting a referendum
  10. Recommends the creation of new constituencies
  11. Appoints and trains officials to supervise elections
  12. Determines the number each political party will niominate in the parliament
  13. Sets the campaign period
  14. Announces the election dates
  15. Settles disputes related to nomination

The Civil Electoral Process in Kenya

  • Carried out in a ward
  • The head of a ward is the county represetative or the member of the county assembly
  • County representatives are elected by the citizens

Qualifications of a County Representative

  1. Must be a kenyan citizen
  2. Must be 18years and above
  3. Must be able to read and write in both english and kiswahili
  4. Must be a registered voter
  5. Must be a member of a party or an independent candidate
  6. Must be of sound mind
  7. Must be staying in the ward
  8. Must be supported by atleast seven members of a ward
  9. Must have an ID card
  10. Must present his nomination papers to the returning officer
  11. Must pay a nomination fee of 1000 to the IEBC

The Electoral Process

  1. Dissolution of the county assembly
  2. The speaker declares all the seats vacant
  3. IEBC announces the election date
  4. Political parties nominate their civil candidates
  5. Candidates present nomination papers to the IEBC
  6. IEBC announces the campaign period
  7. IEBC organizes voting equipments and materials
  8. IEBC appoints and trains election officials
  9. Election materials are taken to polling stations
  10. Voting is done from 6.00am to 5.00 pm on the day of election
  11. Voting is done by the use of secret ballots
  12. Counting of votes is done and witnessed by the observers and party representatives
  13. Presiding officers announces results at the polling stations
  14. All polling stations in the ward submit their counted votes to the returning officer and the winner is officially announced.

How a County Representative May Lose His Civil Seat

  1. In case of death
  2. Resignation from the seat
  3. If declared bankrupt by a court of law
  4. If civil election is nullified
  5. If he is jailed for more than six months
  6. Incase of a nominated county representative the IEBC may nullify the nomination
  7. Incase one is declared insane
  8. In case one looses his kenyan citizenship
  9. Resignation or defecting from his/her party
  10. If he misses 8 consecutive sittings in the county assembly.

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