Monday, 28 March 2022 08:27

Manipulative Skills - Grade 4 Physical Health Education Revision Notes

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Improvising balls:

Materials needed:

  • Waste polythene bags
  • Waste papers
  • Old matresses
  • Sisal rope
  • String
  • Scissors

Procedure of Improvising balls

  • Bring together all the above stated materials ready for improvising. 
  • Fold the old papers into the shape of a ball.
  • Put the folded papers into a non-woven bag(uhuru bag) then grip and twist to make a round shape.
  • Continue to wrap it making as much round as possible, then tie bag tightly.
  • Begin to tie it with a string after making knot, then create line parallel to each other and close while going to the bottom
  • Repeat the process on the sides and compact the lines until it is finished.
  • The ball is ready to play.

Safety tips

  • Work from a clean space
  • Store all sharp items in a container when not in use
  • Follow your teacher's instructions carefuly and work in turns.
  • Should an injury occur, report immediately to the teacher.
  • Use sharp items carefully.
  • To improvise is to make from what is available in the local environment or immediate surrounding. 

Catching Balls

Two-Handed Catching

  • This is a technique that involves use of two hands to receive a ball.

How To Perform Two-Handed Catching.

  1. Keep the eyes on the ball.
  2. Then move towards the ball.
  3. Stretch the arms with fingers spread to meet and snatch the ball towards the body.
  4. Lastly control the ball with fingers and the thumb.

Safety Tips:

  1. Make sure there is enough space between you and other playmates when throwing and catching the ball.
  2. Cathc the ball with fingers spread out, not closed to avoid injuries.

Catching- The act of grasping or seizing a ball.

  • Catching a ball can be done while following different pathways:
    • It can be in  line
    • In a circle
    • Zigzag manner
  • It can also be done at different levels: low, medium and high levels.
  • The degree of force used in catching the ball e.g soft and hard.

Throwing and Passing

Kneeling Overhead Throw

  • Kneeling overhead throw is a type of a pass that you perform from a kneeling position.

How To Perform Kneeling Overhead Throw

  • Begin to assume a full kneeling position.
  • Hold the ball above your head with both hands, fingers well-spread behind the ball.
  • Pass the ball above your head accurately to your partner.

Safety Tips.

  • Ensure the ground is safe for kneeling
  • Use the correct techniques for passing using overhead throw.

Overarm Pass.

  • Overarm pass is a type of pass used to throw the ball to a partner.

How To Perform The Overarm Pass.

  • Keep the eyes focussed on the target.
  • Stand sideways to the target of the throw.
  • The throwing arm moves downwards and upwards.
  • Step towards the target as hip and shoulders rotate and release the ball. The force you release it with makes the ball to travel further.

Overhead Pass

  • The overhead pass is a type used for making a long pass.

How To Perform Overhead Pass.

  1. Begin to Assume a staggered stance- it's a standing position in sport in which the feet are spread to the width of the hips and the toe of one foot is on a line behind the heel of the other foot.
  2. Hold ball above your head with two hands.
  3. Spread your fingers well behind the ball.
  4. Pass the ball over your head with a follow through.

Safety Tips

  • Make sure you observe the rules when passing the ball for your own and other safety.
  • Use the correct technique to pass the ball.

Underarm Pass.

  • Underarm pass is one-handed pass that is taken from below the waist area. It is used to pass a ball to ateam member who is close.

How To Perform The Underarm Pass.

  1. With your feet staggered hold the ball with both hands.
  2. Withdraw the ball backwards and transfer your weight to the back foot.
  3. Give the ball a forward thrust.
  4. Transfer weight to the font leg simultaneously.
  5. Release the ball in the desired direction with one hand.
    * Underarm pass is used to pass over a short distance.

Chest Pass.

  • Chest pass is the common pass used in ball games. It is one of the easiest passes to perform.

How To Perform The Chest Pass.

  1. Hold the ball to the chest.
  2. Spread your fingers over the ball.
  3. Pass the ball at chest level with a follow through.

In all games, there is need for commitment. This is the willingness to give your time and energy to a job, activity or something that you believe in.

Bounce Pass.

  • Bounce pass is done by holding the ball close to the chest and passing it to the playmate.

To bounce: means to cause to rebound or be deflected.

How To Perform The Bounce Pass:

  1. Begin to assume the staggered stance.
  2. Hold the ball frimly close to the chest.
  3. Bounce the ball close to your partner.

Improving Soccer Balls

How To Improve Soccer Balls

  • A soccer can be made from locally available materials.
  • Materials fro improvising soccer balls includes old socks, rubber bands, used carrier bags, cello tapes(seal tapes) strips of old cloth and strings.
    1. Bring together all the above stated materials ready for improvising.
    2. Fold the old papers into the shape of a ball.
    3. Put the folded papers into a non-woven bag(uhuru bag) then grip and twist to make a round shape.
    4. Continue to wrap it and making as much round as possible, then tie the bag tightly.
    5. Begin to tie it wiht a string after making a knot, then create lines parallel to each other and close while going to the bottom.
    6. Repeat the process on the sides and compact the lines until it is finished.
    7. The ball is ready to play.

Passing In Soccer.

  • Instep Pass: A pass that uses the upper surface of the foot.( also called the laces)
  • Passing is moving the ball among team mates in order to keep it away from the opponents and put the ball into a position for a short on the goal.

How to make an instep pass:

  1. Place the left foot level wiht the ball.
  2. Pen hip anbd turning kicking foot open.
  3. Kick the ball with the instep of the foot.

instep: the arched middle portion of the human foot in froont of the ankle joint especially its upper surface.

Opponent: A person who is against another person in a game.

Surrender: To give up something to an opponent for example a ball during a match.

Hand Juggling

How To Perform Hand Juggling

  • Juggling is a skill which involves handling or manipulation of objects in an artful way.
  • It involves tossing objects into the air with one hand and catching them at the same time using the other hand. It is also possible to juggle with the feet.

Safety Tips:

  1. Use safe and comfortable objects
  2. Play in a safe environment.
  3. Keep distance when juggling in groups.

Juggling Scarves

How To Perform Scarf Juggling

  1. Toss one scarf up wit right hand and catch it with same hand.
  2. Toss with left hand and catch with the left.
  3. Toss with the right and catch with right.
  4. Toss with right hand and catch with left.
  5. Toss and try to clap your hands before catching.


Rounders Equipment.

  • The rounders game is played by two of nin players by hitting the ball thrown to them and running artound four posts.
  • The equipment use for playing the game is:
    1. Rounders ball
    2. Rounders bat
    3. Rounders posts

Making Rounders Equipment

  • Equipment for rounders can also be improvised using the following materials.
  • Bat - Can be made from old pieces of cloth(socks), scrapper, clothing material, leather, bamboo sticks.
  • Ball - Can be made from non-woven bags, wooden materials or leather.
  • Posts - Can be made using plastic cones, tins, buckets, wooden stumps, rubber mats, broom, handle, sand.

Safety tips

  • Store all sharp equipment in a safe place.
  • Use the sharp objects carefully.
  • Do not crowd together.
  • Report any injury to the teacher.

Pitch Orientation

  • Batting- is when the batsman or woman strikes the ball with the bat and hits the ball forward into play.
  • Fielding - is catching or picking up the ball after it has been hit.
  • The batting team is th eteam that tries to catch or intercept thye ball in order to stop the batting team from scoring.

Safety tips

  1. All batsmen should wait for their turn in the backward area 10m behind the 4th anbd 15m away from the batting square.
  2. Make sure there are no stones or holes in the field of play.
  3. When you are playing the game, the equipment should be used under the direct supervision of the teacher.

Bowling In Rounders

  • Bowling is the act sending the ball to the batsman using a continuous smooth under arm action.
  • For a successful and correct bowling, the bowler must bowl a ball towards the batsman.

The Bowling Action.

  1. The ball is thrown with a smooth underarm action.
  2. The ball arrives without bouncing within the batsman square.
  3. The ball is above the batsman knee.
  4. The bowlers fee should be inside the bowler's square.\

Things To Remember.

  • Grip the ball and visualize the rectangular space into which your ball must go.
  • Bring  in the foot work by stepping forward as you bowl.
  • Stand at the back of the bowling square left side towards the batsman while holding the ball in the right hand.
  • Point the left hand in the direction in which you re bowling.
  • Step sideways with the left foot, bend the knees, turn the shoulders and bowl.
  • Release the ball with a flick of the wrist.
  • The ball is rolled off the fingers , not the palm.
  • Get your balance by swinging the left arm backwards as you swing the right arm forward. Make the action smooth and rhthymical.

How To Grip The Ball

  • First and second fingers are places over seams of the ball where they come together with the thumb over the seam as shown in the picture below.

Batting In Progress.

  • Batting is hitting the ball from front line of the batting square by the player, to the direction he or she chooses.
  • It is the main attacking move to give the team a rounder.
  • Batting is an attacking technique in rounders. the ball is hit by the batsman towards any direction.
  • The fielders go for the ball and return it while attempting to touch the post the batsman is heading for.
  • It is important for the batsman to observe the rules otherwise one will be declared a "batsman out" or a "no ball"

The batsman is out when:

  • The ball is caught when the batsman hit it.
  • Their foot is over the front or back line of the batting square.
  • They run inside a post.
  • The post they are running towards is stumped( a fielder touhces it with a ball).
  • They lose contact witht the post when the bowler has the ball in the bowler's square.
  • They overtake another batsman.
  • They abstract the fielder.
    Grip: to sieze pr hold an object firmly.

Rules when you play rounders.

  • Run to the outside of the posts.
  • If you stop at a post, you must keep contact with the posts, with hand on bat.
  • You can run on to a post even if it has been previously stumped.(You don't score if the post immediately ahead has been stumped.)
  • When the bowler has the ball in bowing square you cannot move on, but if you are between posts you can carry on to the next posts.
  • You cannot have two batsmen at a post.
  • At a post you do not have to move on for every ball bowled.
  • You can move on as ason as the ball leaves the bowlers hand. You must touch 4th post on getting home/ completion.
  • Fielding: Attempting to catch or stop the ball and return it after it has been hit by the batsman, thereby preventing runs being scored or base runner advancing.

Skipping Rope

Improvising The Skipping Rope

  • A skipping rope is a tool used in the sport of skipping.
  • Improvising is making something from materials available in the environment.

Safety Tips.

  1. Use a pair of scissors or knife with the help of a teacher, parent or guardian.
  2. Use safe materials that arenot rough but friendly to the skin.
  3. Take turns when using materials as a group.
  4. Don't litter the floor with materials.
  5. In case of cuts and blisters alter your teacher, parent or guardian.

Skipping Techniques.

How To Choose The Correct Rope Size or Length.

  • Hold the handles of the rope in both hands.
  • Place both feet on the center of the rope, as you continue to hold the handles with each hand.
  • With both feet on the ground, hold the handles up to the sides of the body towards your shoulder.
  • The handles should sit just below your shoulders or reach ther armpits.
  • The improvised ropes can be used to play the following games:

Donut skips: its about using rope and making circles on the ground, then skipping in and out of the circle.

Flat rope skipping - in this skipping two friends hold the rope on the ground, one at each end. Those skipping, skip over the stationary rope.

Using the correct techniques

  1. Minimize the space created between you and the ground.
  2.  Minimizes the injuries.
  3. It keeps the toes pointes down instead of pulling the feet backwards.
  4. It helps you land softly on the balls of your feet at every bounce.
  5. it helps to distribute the pressure of jumping throughout the body.


  • Grip the handles loosely with the fingers, not the palm which thumbs on top of the rope.
  • When turning the rope, make small circle with the wrists.
  • The grip should be comfortable and firm.

Body posture, arm and wrists position

  1. Hold head straight. Look ahead to maintain balance. 
  2. Shoulders should be level and straight, not hunched. Weight should be on the balls of the feet.
  3. Arms should be held at about 90° angle, held slightly forward and extended sideways.
  4. Elbows should be held close to the body.
  5. Knees should be close together with slight bend.

How To Skip Rope.

  • Hold head straight. Look ahead to maintain balance. 
  • Shoulders should be level and straight, not hunched. Weight should be on the balls of the feet.
  • Arms should be held at about 90° angle, held slightly forward and extended sideways.
  • Elbows should be held close to the body.
  • Knees should be close together with slight bend.

Safety Tips

  1. Ensure you are wearing sports shoes.
  2. Skip the rope on a flat smooth surface.
  3. Keep a safe distance from each other.
  4. Warm up and cool down before and after skipping.
  5. Skip while maintaining the correct posture.

Single Bounce

How To Skip The Rope Using Single Bounce Skill

  • Skip on both feet.
  • Skip once for each turn of the rope.
  • Keep feet, ankle and knees together.
  • mainatin a steady rhthym
  • Mainatin upright body posture with knees bent. slightly.

Double Bouncing

  • Involves jumping twice for each turn of the rope.

How to Perform The Double Bounce Skill.

  • Jump on both sides.
  • Jump twice for each turn of the rope.
  • Keep feet, ankle and knees together.
  • Land on balls of the feet.
  • Keep knees slightly bent.

Safety Tips

  • Make sure you have the correct rope.
  • Make sure you are skipping in an open, flat and safe space.
  • Avoid overcrowding.

Skipping helps us avoid lifestyl diseases. - Medical conditions/ disorders associated with inactivity especially in physical abilities.

One Foot Bounce.

  • The one-foot bounce involves jumping on one foot over a turning rope.

How To Perform The One-Foot Bounce

  • Grip the rope comfortably in the hands.
  • Hold the rope in front with the hands together and elbows close to the body.
  • Place the rope behind the body an turn the jump rope over the head.
  • Jump with only one foot, left or right.

Safety Tips

  1. Choose suitable rope.
  2. Do wamr up exercise before starting to skip and cool down exercise after skipping
  3. Maintain proper posture while skipping.

Importance of skipping rope in everyday life

  • Improves the heart rate.
  • Helps in weight loss.
  • Improve blood circulation.
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