Wednesday, 27 October 2021 13:45

Health and Fitness - CBC Grade 5 Physical Health Education Revision Notes

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Skill Related Fitness.

  1. Balance.

    Balance is the ability to control or stabilize the body when a person is standing still or moving.
    Fitness is a condition in which an individual has enough energy to perform a task without getting tired.
    These are some of the skills that can be done to develop balance;
    1. T balance.
    2. V balance.
    3. Hand balance.
    4. Crab walk.
    5. Wheelbarrow walk.
    6. Crouch balance.
      Balance helps us to perform activities without falling and injuring ourselves.
  2. Agility.

    Agility is the ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while maintaining a constant rapid motion.
    Some of the activities that are performed to develop agility are;
    1. Forward running.
    2. High knee running.
    3. Lateral running.
    4. Shuttle running.
    5. Pivoting.
    6. Reaction time.
      Reaction time is the ability to reach or respond quickly to what you hear, see or feel.
      Good reaction requires one to;
      1. Be alert and attentive.
      2. Respond quickly without delaying.
        It is important in daily life because it enables us to perform activities like running, walking and playing quickly when given command or signal.
        Some of the activities that improve reaction time are; sitting and standing, ‘on to your marks', 'Set and Go’ command, run and stop. Reaction time is very important when driving, playing sports and running away from dangerous situations.
  3. Sit and reach.

    Sit and reach test is a simple measurement of lower back and arm string flexibility.
    Flexibility is the ability to bend without breaking. To measure the sit and reach test you require;
    1. Sit and reach the test box.
    2. Metre ruler or tape measure. How to perform sit and reach test;
    3. Sit on the floor with legs fully extended.
    4. Place one hand on top of the other, slowly bend forward and reach as far as possible holding the stretch for two seconds.
    5. Record the distance that you were able to reach in centimeters. Do this three times.
    6. Calculate the average of the three distances to tell your flexibility.

First Aid In Sports.

Sports Injuries.

These are injuries that occur during sports, athletic activities or exercising.

  1. Closed wound.

    This is an injury on the body where no bleeding takes place on the skin. Tissue damage and bleeding occur under the skin surface.
    Closed wound occurs when you are hit or bumped. A bruise is an example of a closed wound.

    Safety precaution when addressing a closed wound.
    1. Wear protective gloves before dressing a closed wound.
    2. Wash your hands before and after dressing a wound.
    3. Dispose materials and equipment used in dressing wounds.

      How to manage a closed wound to avoid infection.
      1. Rest the wounded part.
      2. Ice application to reduce any swelling and pain.
      3. Compress the wound.
      4. Elevate or raise the wounded part.
  2. Sprain.

    Sprain is stretching or tearing of ligaments.
    Ligaments join bones together to form joints
    Sprains may occur in any part of the body near the joints but mostly at the wrist, thumb, ankle and knee joints.

    Signs and symptoms of a sprain.
    1. Swelling of the affected ligament.
    2. Sprain causes pain.
    3. It is difficult to move the affected joints.
    4. Hearing or feeling a pop sound in your joint at the time of injury.
    5. Bruising.
    6. The affected area feels warmer when touched.
    7. The injured area becomes stiff.

      Management of sprain injury.
      1. Rest, ice application, compression and elevation.
      2. Avoid vigorous activities until the sprain heals.
      3. For wrist, thumb, knees and ankle sprains, compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Crutches can also be used to give support for ankle and knee sprains.
      4. If the sprain is serious, medical and surgical treatment may be required.
  3. Strain.

    A strain is an overstretched, torn or twisted tendon or muscle.
    Strain mostly affects the lower leg muscles, thigh muscles, feet muscles, arm muscles and back muscles.

    Signs and symptoms of strain.
    1. Pain.
    2. Swelling.
    3. It is difficult to move the injured part because of pain.
    4. Skin colour changes where the strain is located.
    5. Muscle cramping.
    6. Muscle weakness.

      Management of strain injury.
      1. Protect the strained muscle from further injuries.
      2. Rest the strained muscle.
      3. Apply ice on the strained muscle for at least 20 minutes in every hour.
      4. Gently compress with ice or other elastic bandage to provide support and decrease swelling.
      5. Elevate or raise the injured part to prevent swelling.

Two-person support method.

  • Two person support method is where an injured person is carried by two people.
  • The method is done by;
    1. The rescuers stand on either side of the injured person.
    2. They place their hands on the injured person’s waist.
    3. The injured person’s arms are placed on the rescuers’ shoulders.
    4. The rescuers and the injured person all face the same direction.
    5. The injured person is supported by the two as they move slowly.

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