- Accounts of Creation
- Christian responsibility over animals, fish and birds
- Christian responsibility over plants
- African teachings on responsibility over plants and animals
- First account
- Second account
The first biblical account of creation
Genesis 1:131, 2:1-4
- It gives record on what was created within the first 6 days.
- Humans’ beings were created last
Day God's Creation First Day and light and darkness Second Sky/dome/firmament Third Earth(land, plants and water bodies Fourth Heavenly bodies( sun, moon and stars) Fifth Sea creatures and birds Sixth Land creatures and man Seventh God rested and called the day Sabbath
- From the first account of creation, we learn God is all powerful because He created the universe with one command.
- He is a God or order. He created the universe and everything in it in an orderly manner.
- God is the provider. He provides for human beings to meet their needs.
- Leisure time was instituted.
The second Biblical account of creation
- In the second account of creation, there was no one to cultivate the land when God created the universe.
- God took soil from the ground and formed man. God breathed life into him
- Human beings were created first.
- Man was created out of dust
- God breathed life into mans nostrils
- Man was put into the Garden of Eden.
- The tree of knowledge and life giving stood in the middle of the garden.
- Men was commanded to use everything in the garden except tree of knowledge of good and evil
- The forbidden fruit from the tree was not supposed to be eaten.
- Eating from the tree would result to death.
- God gave man the responsibility to take care of the environment
- God created all birds and all animals
- Man was given the responsibility of naming all the creatures
- He named all the birds and animals, but none was suitable helper for him
- Adam became lonely.
- A woman was created out of Adam’s rib for companionship and a helper.
- God is omnipotent/ all powerful
- God is orderly and perfect
- God is omnipresent/ everywhere
- God is transcendent
- God is the sustainer/ provider
- God is the sole creator
- He is a moral God
- He is a loving God
- He is a spirit
- He is everlasting/ self existence
- God is source of goodness
- God is Holy
- God is a worker
- There is only one God.
Similarities in the two biblical accounts of creation
- In both accounts, God is the sole creator
- In both God created male and female
- In both, human beings are special
- In both God provides for human beings
- In both, human beings are given domination over the rest of the creation
- The uniqueness of human beings is brought forth in the second accounts
- Man shares in the life of God since he is made in the likeness of God
- Creation involves both the living and non-living things.
Differences in the two biblical accounts of creation
|First Account||Second Account|
|1.Days on the order of creation are given||There is no mention of the days on order of creation|
|2.Marriage is made for procreation||Marriage is made for companionship|
|3.Man was created last||Man was created first|
- There is a chronological order of events in the first account of creation as opposed to the second
- In the first account, male and female are created at the same time whereas in the second account man is created first then woman is out of his ribs
- In the first account, creation is out of the command “let there be”, yet, in the second, man is made out of dust
- In the first account, man names what he creates as opposed to the second where man is given the opportunity to name the animals
- A Sabbath day allocated for rest appears on the first while in the second account it wasn’t mentioned
- The Garden of Eden mentioned in the second account wasn’t in the first
- In the second creation account are four rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Gihon and Pishon), which were not mentioned in the first
- Man was given a responsibility to till the land in the second but not in the first
- In the second account, the forbidden tree appears but this misses in the first account
- In the first account, God created human beings for procreation while in the second account they were created for companionship
- The second account of creation is human centred while the first does not shore this. It is man centred
- In the first account God created in union with the spirit (Holy Trinity) while in the second account God is alone
- In the first account human beings were created last while in the second they came first
- The first account takes six days to be complete unlike the second where days were not mentioned
- In the first account, God appreciates everything he creates. We are not told this in the second.
Importance of learning about creation
- Helps us to know and understand God’s creation work.
- Helps to appreciate God’s great work
- Helps us to know how the first account differs from the second on
Africans view creation
- Africans believe that creation originated from God the creator.
- Each community has a myth that explains its origin
- Africans see God as mysterious in his deeds, for they fail to explain how he created the earth.
- Africans see human beings as special and that God creates everything for them.
- God provided the first human beings with all the necessities of life.
- The first people lived happily with God and lacked nothing.
- Marriage was mainly for procreation.
Similarities - biblical account and African creation stories
- In both, God is the sole creator.
- Man is the climax of creation.
- God is supreme.
- In both, man was given a wife for company.
- God is portrayed as a potter.
- God is the provider
- Creation of human took place at the end of the creation of things
Differences Between the biblical account and African creation stories
- In biblical view, the order of creation is given, while the order of creation in the traditional view is not mentioned
- In biblical view , everything was created to benefit human beings, some communities believe that god gave specific things to specific communities
- Christians have stewardship over Gods creation and they should care for everything in it
- Our responsibility is to take care of these creations and use them for our benefits but in a responsibly way
Ways in which Christians apply biblical teachings to protect animals , fish and birds
- According to Genesis 2:15-20 and James 3;7 human beings are give authority to name and tame animals , birds and fish.
- The responsibility to name the animals and birds means man was given authority to control all the creatures
- Taming animals is a show of authority over them.
Ways in which Christians promote and protect animals, fish and birds
- There are different strategies for taking care of God’s creatures like
- Constructing good houses for domestic animals
- Fencing our farms well to keep away wild animals
- Animals need food, shelter and security to be healthy.
Reducing conflicts between human beings and wild animals
The Kenya constitution protects animals from violence, overworking them when they are unwell, starvation, denial of water, abandonment, poisoning, careless surgery procedures, hunting and killing them.
We should learn to co exist with wild animals to reduce conflicts with them.
Importance of protecting animals, fish and birds
- Animals, fish and birds are important to human beings
- They provide food, clothing and income.
- Some animals provide manure for farming.
- Animals are companions and help us to work
- Their products support dairy industries, wool industries, leather and fishing industries.
- These sectors employ many people
- Birds help in the pollination of plants. As a result human beings, animals and birds also get food.
Different plants found in the environment
Genesis 1:29, Genesis 2:15, Psalms 104:14
They were to be in charge of the Garden of Eden
To eat from the fruits of the garden
To take care of God’s creation.
- God has provide us with plants. Human being have been given the responsibility to take care of the plants to benefit themselves and animals.
- We care for plants by applying manure, weeding, watering and spraying pesticides.
- We also take care protecting them from animals that feed them
How Christians apply biblical teachings on the care for plants and conserve the environment
Human beings have a responsibility to conserve the environment. We can conserver the environment by
- Through afforestation and reafforestation
- Evading/eradicating environmental pollution.
- Use of proper farming methods e.g. contours farming.
- Conserving water towers.
- Through provision of education, geared towards teaching people how to cope with the environment.
- Carrying out irrigation
Ways in which prudent use of plants contributes to economic growth
- Prudent use of plants contributes to economic growth.
- Prudent is the careful use of what you have to benefit you now and in the future.
- Prudent use of plants means taking care of plants, using what they produce carefully so that they can benefit us now and in the future
- Economic growth is an increase of plants in the production of goods and services from one period of time to another.
- It is good to take care of plants and harvest them properly. These practices will ensures that there is food for consumption. The surplus can be sold to avoid wastage and earn revenue.
- Storing farm produce well after harvest is important.
- One can use the harvest for a period and save the farmer from buying the same foodstuff in the future.
- The money which would have been used to purchase similar produce is used for other purpose.
- Well stores seeds can be planted in the future, saving one from buying the same farm input.
- Reforestation and replanting crops ensure that one has enough to use and at the same time, ensure a regular supply of the produce to the farmer. This contributes to steady source of income.
There are different types of plants and animals that Africans keep.
Some crops initially grown by specific African communities in specific geographical locations
The Africans took care of plants and animals as a responsibility from God
Types of indigenous plants
- Sweet potatoes
Types of indigenous animals
- They were sources of food.
2. The plants provided medicinal herbs
3. Other plants provided wood for construction of houses and making utensils
4. Wood was used as a source of energy
5. Plants and animals provided materials for making musical instruments like kayamba
6. Some plants and animals were also used as totems.
7. Animals provided skins and hides for making clothes
8. Some animals like dogs provide security to man
9. Other were used as pack animals and others were used for transport. Example donkey
10. Animal horns were used for horn blowing which was means of communication.
Ways in which Africans promoted care and conservation of all types of plants
- The Africans protected plants by weeding, pruning, mulching, shading, trapping and scaring away animals that fed on the plants.
- They also preserved seeds of the plants to last longer during dry periods and to protect them from small such as rats and weevils.
This conservation ensured that Africans had seeds to plants during the rainy seasons.
- Preserved seeds and plants served as source of food during drought.
- Africans used fire to make plants sprout out more serving as food for the animals.
How Africans ensured protection of all types of animals and birds
African ensured protection of all animals, fish and birds in different ways
How Africans ensured protection of fish
- Avoid overfishing
- Use of proper nets
How Africans promoted health of animals
- Africans cared for and protected domestic animals against wild animals by fencing their compounds and sleeping in the same place with the animals.
- They scared away wild animals that predated on their domestic animals by using different methods. Eg use of scarecrows, fire, noise
- In the events of disease. Africans treated their animals using selected plants such as Aloe vera while making them healthier by providing lick stones with mineral salts. They knew how to take care of animals during birth which ensured the growth in population.
- Animal products such as meat were preserved to last long for use during drought. Preservation was a way of ensuring food was not wasted
- Young animals were left to suckle up to a time when they could eat grass and other types of vegetation.