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Outline eight contributions of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) during his caliphate.

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  1. Expanded and consolidated the unity of the Muslim empire.
  2. Expanded the mosque at Mecca.
  3. He introduced administrative record keeping in 14A.H to record revenue and government expenditure.
  4. He built bridge and Canals.
  5. He established the Islamic calendar in the year 16 A.H and ordered it to start from the migration (Hijra).
  6. He introduced a standing army.
  7. He ordered minting of coins in I8A.H.
  8. Established the institution of Kadhihood in Islam.
  9. Introduced a police force.
  10. Originated welfare system in Islam by giving stipends to the poor from bait-ul maal.
  11. Founded new cities contributing to the growth of Islamic culture and civilization.
  12. He improved agriculture and the economy of the Islamic state.
  13. Established the first educational system in Islam.
  14. Introduced quarantine in areas affected by epidemics as one of his public health measures.
  15. Introduced a postal and town system
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