Friday, 17 September 2021 06:47

Resources and Economic Activities - Class 7 Social Studies Revision Notes

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Things that we use to create wealth and meet our needs are called resources.
Activities that people undertake in order to earn income and create wealth are called economic activities


This is growing of crops and rearing of livestocks

Cash Crop Farming

The main cash crops grown in africa include.

  • Coffee
  • Sisal
  • Sugarcane
  • Tea
  • Cocoa
  • Cloves
  • Pyrethrum

Cocoa in Ghana

Was brought from central america
Introduced to west africa countries like:

  • Ghana
  • Cote d ivoire
  • Nigeria
  • Cameroon

Ghana is one of the largest producer of cocoa.
NB Cote d ivoire is the leading producer of cocoa
Varieties of cocoa are;

  1. Cocoa criollo
    Best in central america
    Low yielding but superior quality
  2. Cocoa forastern
    Best in west africa
    High yield but lower quality

Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cocoa.

  1. Plenty of rainfall – 1500mmand 2000mm is most preferred.
  2. High temperatures – 24°C and 28°C
  3. Humid condition
  4. Shelter from strong winds
  5. Deep and well drained soils
  6. Protection from strong sunlight – intercropping with bananans.
  7. Low altitudes of up to 750m.

Cocoa Growing Areas

Grown in small family farms.
Main growing areas is called cocoa triangle.
Cocoa triangle areas are;accra, kumasi, takoradi.

Importance of cocoa to the economy of ghana.

  1. Earns the country foreign exchange.
  2. Leds to creation of jobs
  3. Building of an artificial harbour at takoradi which enhaned transport in the region.
  4. Growth of other industries e.g. drugs, cosmetics, and chocolate industries.
  5. Improved the living standards of the employed
  6. Imrovement of the infrastracture e.g.road and railway.

Cloves in Tanzania

Grows in tropical climates
Grow in clusters
Picked when the buds are full but not open.
It has a life-span of 50-60years
It originated from indonesia.
They were introduced to the island of zanzibar by the arabs
Originally grown in plantations.
Today also grown on small scale farms

Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cloves

  1. Plenty of rainfall – 1500mm and 2000mm per year.
  2. High temperature – 27°C and 30°C
  3. Deep fertile soils
  4. High humidity throughout the year.

Growing areas

  1. Island of pemba
  2. Western highland of zanzibar

Importance of cloves to the economy of Tanzania

  1. Earn foreign exchange – produces about 80% of the world yields
  2. Creates employment
  3. Serve as raw materials for industries e.g. perfume, spices, soap and medicine industries.
  4. Used in the cigarette and confectionary industry.
  5. Farmers earn income for domestic use.

Draw map on our lives today pg 70 showing cloves in tanzania.

Pyrethrum in Kenya

Kenya is the world’s largest producer and exporter.
The plant was introduced from australia in 1929
Grown for its flowers substance called pyrethrin which is used to make pesticides.

Conditions favouring the growth of pyrethrum

  1. Well distributed rainfall- 1000mm and 1500mm per year
  2. Cool temperature
  3. High altitude 1800m
  4. Well drained and fertile soils

Growing areas in kenya

Mainly grown in small farms;

  1. Molo
  2. Nyeri
  3. Kiambu
  4. Meru
  5. Kisii
  6. Nyandarua
  7. Kericho
  8. Mt.elgon

Importance of pyrethrum to the economy

  1. Earn country foreign exchange
  2. Farmers earn income for domestic use
  3. Creates job opportunities
  4. The main growing area is nyandarua county.

Pastoral Farming

Keeping of animals as a way of life is called pastoral farming
Animals mainly kept are

  1. Cattle
  2. Sheep
  3. Goats
  4. Donkeys
  5. Camels

Transhumance – is the migration /movement of pastoralist seasonally between the wet and dry season in search of pasture

Pastoralism is mainly practised in the grassland savannah and some semi-arid areas of africa.

Major pastoral communities in africa:

  1. The maasai
  2. The fulani
  3. The tswana.

The Maasai

Best known nomadic pastoralists of east africa.
Mainly keep cattle, goats and sheep.
They practise transhumance

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the maasai

  1. Low population
  2. Favourable climate
  3. Flat land for easy movement
  4. Crossing border easily i.e.kenya and tanzania.

The fulani

Are found in west africa
Are largest nomadic group in the world
They keep cattle, sheep, goats and horses
Occupy the savannah area between chad and senegal.
They practise transhumance
They uses horses to search for places where water and grazing land are available.

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the fulani

  1. Extensive grassland belt
  2. Low population
  3. The absence of tsetse flies in the grassland
  4. Favourable climate to support pasture.
  5. Seasonality in rainfall maens pasture grow in seasons.

The tswana

Are found in botswana.
Kalahari desert lies to the west of the country
Soil is sandy
Soil mainly support savannah grassland vegetation
Water is tapped by drilling wells and boreholes.
Animals kept are cattle, sheep and goats.
Grazing areas are often far from the homestead

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the tswana

  1. Low population
  2. Presence of grassland in most parts.
  3. Crop farming is generally difficult.

Benefits of Pastoral Farming

  1. Source of income/livelihood.
  2. Earn foreign exchange
  3. Source of wealth for individual pastoralists e.g. fulani.
  4. Good economic use of land
  5. Animal products support other industries e.g. tanneries
  6. Create employment
  7. Animals provide food for the pastoralists.

Problems Facing Pastoral Farming in Africa

  1. Diseases – foot and mouth, rinderpest, east coast fever, antrax.
  2. Drought
  3. Overstocking
  4. Poor quality pasture
  5. Poor quality breeds
  6. Fires
  7. Harsh climatic conditions
  8. Political differences
  9. Transport
  10. Land pressure
  11. Indequate capital
  12. Cattle rustling
  13. Attack by wild animals.

Development in Pastoral Farming Areas in Africa

  1. Cross-breeding
  2. Reduce problem of tsetse flies
  3. Constructed boarding schools and dispensaries
  4. Introduction of mixed farming
  5. Veterinary services are provided
  6. Introduction of group and individual ranching
  7. Selling some livestock to prevent overstocking to K.M.C
  8. Construction of dams and boreholes
  9. The maasai have started alternative economic activities e.g.making and selling handicrafts and curios.

Multi-purpose River Projects

  1. The river tana projects in kenya
  2. The aswan high dam in egypt
  3. The volta river schemes in ghana
  4. The kariba dam in zambia and zimbambwe

River Tana projects


Found along river Tana
Source in the highlands around mt kenya
Involved the construction of seven dams hence the name seven forks schemes

  1. Kindaruma – 1968
  2. Kamburu – 1977
  3. Gitaru – 1980
  4. Masinga – 1986
  5. Kiambere – 1988
  6. Mutonga – not completed
  7. Kgrand falls – not completed

Reasons for establishment

  • Production of HPE
  • Control flooding
  • Availability of large river.

Benefits from the river tana projects

  1. Reduce flooding in the lower tana valley
  2. Fishing e.g. masinga and kiambere
  3. Lakes behind the dam modify the climate around the area
  4. Tourists attraction
  5. Expansion of industries due to availability of HEP
  6. Provide water for domestic use
  7. Pruduction of HEP.

Problems Facing the Tana Projects.

  1. Inadequate fund to complete the projects
  2. Expensive to resettle people
  3. Reduction of water during the dry season
  4. Siltation of dams
  5. Some sections have no water because water moves through underground tunnels to neighbouring dams.

The Aswan High Dam

Found in egypt
Located on river Nile
Completed in 1971
Behind the dam is lake nasser 550km long.
Lake nasser is the second largest after kariba.

Reasons for establishment

  1. Provide water for irrigation(main)
  2. To produce HEP
  3. To contro floods
  4. To pvide water for domestic use.

Benefits resulting from the construction of the dam

  1. Control floods in the lower Nile region.
  2. Irrigated land receives a rugular and sufficient water supply
  3. Improve transportation in southern egypt – linking to sudan due to lake nasser.
  4. Development of fishing
  5. Growth of industries due to production of HEP.
  6. Create employment.
  7. Create tourists attraction
  8. Lake nasser has modified the weather conditions.

Problems facing the aswan high dam.

  1. Displacement of people
  2. Moving of ancient egyptian temples of abu simbel to new location
  3. Expensive to construct dam and egypt to look foreign assistance.
  4. Siltation
  5. Reduction of nutrients that flow down to the mediterrean sea to support aquatic life.
  6. Lack of enough silt to costruct bricks and for pottery.
  7. Erosion of the Nile delta due to lack of silt.

The Volta River Scheme

It is the largest river in ghana
Found across river volta a place called akosombo
A dam is also known as the akosombo dam
The location of the dam was chosen because of its narrow position.
Started in 1962 and completed in 1966.
A lake called lake volta was formed behind the dam
Lake volta is the world’s largest in terms of surface area.

Reason for establishment

  • Control the waters of river volta at akosombo
  • Generate HEP.
  • Reduce the cost of generating electricity from oil.

Benefits from the development of the scheme.

  1. Establishment of fishing industry
  2. Improved water transport between northern and southern ghana through lake volta.
  3. Irrigation increased food production.
  4. Development of industries
  5. Led to earning of foreign exchange, since HEP is sold to togo and benin.
  6. Create employment.

Problems facing the volta river scheme

  1. Requires alot of capital to construct a dam.
  2. Displacement of people
  3. Transportation became difficult
  4. Water borne diseases e.g. bilharzia.

The Kariba Dam

Located at kariba gorge along river zambezi
Found on the boundary between zimbabwe and zambia in central africa.
Construction began in 1955 and completed 1977.
Lake kariba was formed behind this dam.
It is the world’s largest artificial lake by water volume.

Reasons for establishment

  1. There was need for cheap power for industries by the two countries.
  2. HEP production save forest clearing
  3. Existing railway could not transport coal.

Benefits resulting from the kariba dam.

  1. Production of HEP.
  2. Reduction in the cost of energy.
  3. Creation of jobs
  4. Existing railway station was reduced
  5. Reduction of flooding of river zambezi downstream.
  6. Lake kariba provides a safe and cheap method of transport.
  7. Tourist attraction due to dam and lake
  8. Reduction of over-reliance on coal as a source of fuel.
  9. Increased fishing activities.
  10. Forest around the area provides home for wildlife

Problems facing the establishment of the dam

  1. A lot of capital is required to construct a dam.
  2. Negotiation and agreement between zambia and zimbabwe.
  3. Endangered wild animals
  4. Political problems delayed construction.
  5. Bilharzia causing snails spread due to stagnant water
  6. The earth quakes pose danger due to weight of the dam.
  7. Displacement of people.


A forest is a group of trees growing close together over a lrge area of land.
Forestry is the practice of planting and taking care of forests and trees in order to serve different purposes.
Forests in africa are both natural and planted
Natural forest mainly consists of hardwood and some softwood trees.
Planted or cultivated forests consist of softwood trees.

Location of Major Forests in Africa

Draw map showing location of major forests in africa on our lives today pg 88

The main type is the extensive tropical rain forest or the equatorial covers gabon, cote d ivoire, nigeria,
ghana, DRC, Liberia, cameroon and eastern coat of madagascar.

Mountane or mountain forest

Occurs in the highland and mountain regions of africa
Found at ;

  1. Drakensberg mountains
  2. Ethiopia highland
  3. Highland of east africa

Mangrove forests

Found ;

  1. Eastern coast of eastern africa between somalia and natal in south africa.
  2. Western coast of africa between angola and sierra leone.

Savannah woodlands

Found in the savannah belt of africa.

Mediterranean forest

Mixture of hardwood and softwood forest
Found at;

  1. Atlas mountain in north africa
  2. Cape province in south africa

Planted forests

  1. Mostly found in highlands
  2. Planted to replace indigenous trees
  3. Example is the great usutu in swaziland.


Forestry in the DRC.

  1. 57% of the total land is covered by forest
  2. Most forest is natural
  3. Are found in the northern region of the country
  4. Trees include;
    1. Teak
    2. Ebony
    3. Mahogany
    4. African cedar

Importances of forest to the economy of DRC

  1. Source of valuable hardwood timber
  2. Protect the water resources in the country
  3. Home to rich and diverse wildlife
  4. Attracts a lot of attention in scientific research
  5. Provided employment opportunities
  6. Source of revenue to the government.
  7. Problems facing forestry in the DRC.
  8. Locating and cutting needed trees species is expensive and difficult due to the closeness
  9. Buttress roots which make the trees difficult to cut.
  10. Creepers and undergrowth make it difficult to reach the trees needed for logging.
  11. Some trees are huge and when fall destroy unnecessarily
  12. Huge size and the heavy weight make them difficult to handle.
  13. Difficult to maintain roads.
  14. Expensive to transport logs to the market
  15. Valuable species take long time to mature and are in danger of disappearing.
  16. Deforestation.

Forestry in Swaziland

  1. Industry mainly depends on plantation forests
  2. It covers 120000ha of land
  3. Consists mainly of softwood that is pine and eucalyptus trees.
  4. Main forests are;
    1. Great usutu valley
    2. Piggs peak forest
  5. Swaziland’s forests provide softwood for:
    1. Pulp mills
    2. Saw mills
    3. Box factories

Importances of forests to the economy of swaziland

  1. Earn country foreign exchange
  2. The great usutu forest has helped to reduce soil erosion
  3. Protect water catchment areas
  4. Provide good picnic site thus promotingtourism.
  5. Help to conserve the wildlife
  6. Reduce soil erosion help to prevent flooding
  7. Creation of job opportunities

Problems facing forestry in swaziland

  1. Higher rate of forest exploitation than replacement
  2. Demand for arable land
  3. Attacks by pests and diseases
  4. Difficult in transportation
  5. Destruction by forest fires.


Is the process of extracting or removing minerals from within the ground.
Rocks containing minerals are called ores.

Extraction of Selected Minerals in Africa

  1. Petroleum in nigeria
  2. Copper in zambia
  3. Gold in south africa
  4. Soda ash in kenya

Petroleum in Nigeria

In natural state it is called crude oil
Mined in niger delta

Petroleum drilling

It is done by means of a large metal sructure called derrick.
The drill head is called bit.
Mud is mixed with water to lubricate the bit
Where oil deposits are below the ocean floor, oil rig is floated on the water to drill the oil.
Oil is transported by pipeline to the refineries
Refineries are located at elesa eleme near port harcourt at wari and at kaduna.

Uses of petroleum

  1. Making chemicals
  2. Bitumen(tar)used for tarmacking roads
  3. Kerosene used to light lamps and stoves
  4. Petroluem and diesel used to run motor vehicles and locomotives.
  5. Cooking gas is obtained from petroluem
  6. Making plastics, fertilizers and medicines
  7. Lubricating to reduce friction

Contribution of oil to the economy of niger

  • Earning foreign exchange
  • Created employment
  • Add revenue to the government
  • Some oil is used in the country.

Copper in Zambia

It is shiny, fairly soft and reddish brown in colour
It is easy to bend and shape.
DRC and zambia are leading producer in africa
Copper belt extend from ndola in zambia to lubumbashi in DRC.

Copper Mining

Open cast or stripping method is used.
Also shaft or pit method is used.
Machines called excavators are used.
Open cast is done at Nchanga near chingaola
Deep in ground shaft or pit method is used.

Uses of copper

  1. Making electrical wires
  2. Making telephone wires
  3. Making water and gas pipe
  4. Making coils
  5. Making motor vehicles radiators
  6. Making ornaments, medals and utensils.
  7. Mixed with broze to make brass.

Contribution of copper to the economy of zambia

  1. Earn foreign exchange to the country.
  2. Create employment
  3. Copper sales are used to develop other sectors e.g. health services, education.
  4. Workers provide aready market for the agricultural products.

Gold in South Africa

It is a yellow precious metal
South africa is the largest producer of gold in the world.
Rock cointaining gold is called reefs
Reefs is the ore that is mined
Mining began in 1886 in south africa area called witwatersrand near Johannesburg in trasvaal province.
Other mining areas are orange free state

Gold Mining

Shaft or underground mining is used as method
Electric drills are used to remove gold reef.
Gold is separated from the rocks using chemical
Gold is melted and made into bars called ignots.

Uses of gold

  1. Make medals, ornaments and jewellery items e.g.rings, necklaces.etc.
  2. Used by dentists to replace and coat teeth.
  3. In the past gold were used as money.
  4. Used to coat items e.g.pens
  5. Symbol of wealth and power by kings or emperors

Contribution of gold to the economy

  1. Earns foreign exchange to the country
  2. Employment
  3. Growth of towns e.g.krugers dorp, welkam, klerksorp and johannesburg
  4. Improvement of other industries.

Soda Ash in Kenya

Rock cointaining soda ash is called trona
Mined at lake magadi.
Mining started in 1914.

Soda ash mining

Method is dredging
Machine is called dredger
Mixed with water to form shiny solution called slurry.
In factory unwanted rocks and dirt are removed from slurry
The product is then dried by evaporating
Soda ash is put in bags and exported

Uses of soda ash

  1. Making glass, soap, paper and aluminium
  2. Making dyes, drugs and chemicals
  3. Treat water
  4. Softening water in the cooking refinery
  5. Softening vegetable when cooking.

Contribution of soda ash

  1. Employment
  2. Development of transport network
  3. Growth of town e.g.magadi.
  4. Earn the country foreign exchange – it is the leading mineral export in kenya.
  5. Establishment of industries e.g.drug, glass, dyes and chemical manufacturers.

Problems Associated with Mining in Africa

  1. Led to death e.g. gold mines in south africa.
  2. Displacement of already settled people e.g. kwale district to allow for the mining of titannium.
  3. Other economic activities are neglected.
  4. Leds to diseases e.g. lung diseases due to dust.
  5. It degrade environment through pollution.

Effects of Mining on the Environment

  1. Ugliness of the land
  2. Destruction of plant and animal life.
  3. Pollution

Industrial Development

Is growth and expansion of industries in an area.

Industrial Development in Kenya

The development of industries in kenya started in 1941
Industries are made more diverse covering processing, assemblying, manufacturing, and service industries.

Factoring favouring industrial development in kenya.

  1. Availability of power
  2. Availability of raw materials
  3. Government polisies
  4. Research information.
  5. Economic policy
  6. Availability of capital
  7. Availability of labour
  8. Political stability
  9. Availability of transport
  10. Availability of ready markets

Contributions of industries to the economy of kenya

  1. Creation of jobs
  2. Growth of industries led to improvement of roads
  3. Expansion of townsearn foreign exchange
  4. Increase income to the farmers
  5. Reduce cost of importing similar products.
  6. Development of new technology.

Industrial Development in South Africa

South africa is the most developed (industrialised nation in africa)

Factors favouring growth of Industries in South Africa

  1. Large reserves of coal
  2. Presence of a wide range of minerals
  3. Presence of agricultural raw materials
  4. Availablity of labour
  5. Government policy
  6. Infrastructure
  7. Cheap power
  8. Gold mining
  9. Ready market
  10. Favourable climate
  11. Availability of capital.

Contribution of industries to the economy of south africa

  1. Increased demanded of raw materials
  2. Country became self-sufficient
  3. Growth of industries
  4. Goods are used in domestic market. This saves country foreign exchange.
  5. Leds to growth of towns
  6. Create employment
  7. Earns the country foreign exchange
  8. Provide stable source of income.

Problems experienced due to industrial development

  1. Destruction of the natural environment
  2. High rate of crime
  3. Pollution
  4. Erosion of cultural values
  5. Rural-urban migration
  6. Displacement of people
  7. Loss of agricultural land


Is harvesting of fish from water bodies or fishing grounds.
Can be harvested from fresh or salty water sources.
Fresh water sources of fish are called inland fishing ground
Sea water sources are salty and are called marine fishing ground.

Main Inland Fishing Ground in Africa

Carried out in:

  1. Lakes
  2. Large rivers
  3. Dams
  4. Ponds

Most important fishing ground ;

  1. Lake kyoga
  2. Lake victoria
  3. Lake turkana
  4. Lake tanganyika
  5. Lake malawi
  6. Lake chad

Fish caught are in the above named inland areas are;

  1. Nile perch
  2. Tilapia
  3. Dagaa(omena)

Artificial lakes where fishing is practised;

  1. Lake volta
  2. Lake nasser
  3. Lake kariba
  4. River orange

Rivers where fishing is carried out;

  1. Nile
  2. Niger
  3. Orange
  4. Tana
  5. Zambezi
  6. Congo
  7. Volta

Fish farming is practised in ponds;

  1. Tilapia
  2. Trout which are the main types of fish.

Main Marine Fishing Grounds in Africa

Carried out in seas and oceans

  1. Coast of angola, namibia and south africa
  2. Coast of morocco and algeria
  3. Coastal water of weat africa, gabon, and cameroon.
  4. Coasts of tanzania and kenya
  5. Main fish caught are;
    • Tuna
    • Mackerel
    • Sardine
    • Snapper
    • Barracuda
    • Cavalla

Methods of Fishing

Fishing methods depend on;

  1. The type of fish to be caught
  2. The area where fish are found
  3. The purpose of fishing, wheather commercial or subsistence.

Large scale fishing methods are;

  1. Longlining method
    Improved on the hook and line methods
    Mainly used in deep sea fishing
  2. Trawling
    Uses boat called trawlers
    Used to catch fish which live near the sea bed/deep sea.
  3. Purse-seining
    Uses two boats
    Used to catch fish living near the water surface and found in large groups.
  4. Net drifting
    Net stretched across the river or portion of the lake or ocean.

NB dagaa are attracted to the surface near the fishing boat by light from lamps.

Contribution of Fishing to the Economy of Africa

  1. It is a source of food
  2. It is a source of in come
  3. It is a source of employment
  4. Source of raw materials
  5. Source of foreign exchange.
  6. Led to the growth of some towns
  7. Led to improvement in living standards
  8. It is a tourist attraction
  9. Contributed to growth of other industries.

Problems Facing the Fishing Industry in Africa

  1. Overfishing
  2. Pollution
  3. Inadequate capital and modern equipment
  4. Poor transport system
  5. Mismanagement of co-operatives society
  6. Inability to protect fisheries
  7. Inadequate processing and storage facilities
  8. Growth of water weeds
  9. Use of harmful fishing equipment methods
  10. Destruction by fishing equipment
  11. Inadequate local market for fish
  12. Lack of clearly defined boundaries in fishing ground between different countries.


Is the exchange of goods and serviecs between people or countries.

Regional Trade Organizations in Africa


Formed in 1994
Replaced PTA which was formed in 1981.
Mainly formed to increase trade in eastern and southern africa.
Headquaters are in lusaka zambia.
Members refer our live today pg 114
Mozambique withdrew and lesotho in 1997
Tanzania withdrew in 2000
Namibia withdrew in 2004
Angola has also withdrew.

Objectives of COMESA

  1. Create common market for all members
  2. Make members states to increase raw materials
  3. Promote cooperation in transport and communication.
  4. Promote peace, security and stability among members states.
  5. Promote trade relation between COMESA and rest of the world
  6. Establish common bank.
  7. Promote interaction and exchange of ideas
  8. Widen market
  9. Promote joint research in science and technology.


Formed in 1980 in lusaka zambia
Formed as SADCC.
Headquarters are in gaborone botswana.
Members – refer to our lives today pg 115

Objectives of SADC

  1. Promote trade and widen markets.
  2. Promote friendly relationship
  3. Alleviate poverty
  4. Promote development of transport and communication.
  5. Promote and defend peace and security.
  6. Develop common political values, systems and institutions.
  7. Promote sustainable development and economic development.
  8. To utilize natural resources found in the region.


formed in 1976 in togo.
Headquaters Abuja nigeria
Members – refer our lives today pg 116
Mauritania withdrew in 2000
Guinea suspended in 2008

Objectives of ECOWAS

  1. Promote trade by removing taxes on goods
  2. Promote free movement of people
  3. Promote friendly relations.
  4. Create a common market in the region.
  5. Encourage improvement of intrastructure
  6. Promote co-operation and integration
  7. Encourage industrial development
  8. Raise living standards
  9. Maintain and enhance economic stability
  10. Prevent and settle regional disputes and conflicts.

Benefits of Regional Trade in Africa

  1. Members become economically stronger
  2. Create employment
  3. Increase trade within the organization
  4. Promote political unity
  5. Creation of large market for goods.
  6. Improvement of infrastructure
  7. Create wider market hence lowering prices of goods
  8. Creation of banks to support trading activities.

Problems Facing Regional Trade in Africa

  1. Production of similar goods.
  2. Poor transport systems
  3. Lack of a common currency.
  4. Political differences
  5. Political instability.
  6. Lack of a common tax system
  7. Quota system.
  8. Level of purchasing power
  9. Differences in development levels

Transport and Communication

TRANSPORT is the movement of goods and people from one place to another.
COMMUNICATION is the sending of messages from one person or place to another.

Major Transport Networks in Africa.

  1. Road transport
  2. Pipeline transport
  3. Railway transport
  4. Cables transport
  5. Water transport
  6. Air transport

Road Transport

  1. All-weather
    Made of murram or tarmac
  2. Dry-weather road
    They are not tarmacked
    Used during dry season.

Major international roads

  • Trans-african highway
    Runs from mombasa to lagos in nigeria.
  • Great north road
    Runs from cape town to cairo in egypt
  • Trans-sahara highway
    Runs from lagos to algiers in algeris
  • Cotonou-gao-oudja highway
    Runs/connects benin with morocco
    The road has a branch at gao that stretches to dakar in senegal.

Railway Transport

Built during colonial period
Few were built after independence.
South africa has the most developed railway notwork in africa
Somalia, rwanda, burundi and niger do not have a railway.
It transports bulky goods.

  1. The tanzania – zambia railway(tazara)
    Connects zambia to the port of dar es salam
  2. The trans-cameroon railway
    Connects chad and the central african republic with the coast
    Used to exploit forest and minerals e.g. bauxite in cameroon.
  3. The south african railway
    Connects other countries such as zimbabwe, zambia, mozambique, botswana and DRC.
    NB most railway are narrow gauge
    This means they are one metre wide
    In zimbabwe, south africa, morocco, algeria, tinisia and the DRC.there are sections of electrified railway line.

Water Transport

It is cheap form of transport
Water transport in rivers and lakes is called inland water transport.
Water transport in sea and ocean is called sea transport.


Mainly not navigable because;

  • Seasonal flow
  • Floating vegetation and weeds
  • Rapids
  • Waterfalls
  • Shallow water depth
  1. The nile
    Only navigable from lake albert in uganda up to nimule on the border with sudan
    Between juba and khartoum in sudan
    At lake nasser in egypt.
  2. The congo
    Only navigable at between its mouth and matadi
    Between kinshasa and kisangani
    Between ibundu and kindu.
  3. The niger
    Only navigable between kouroussa and bamako
    Ansongo and border between mali and niger
  4. The benue
    Only navigable betwee where it joins the niger and garoua in cameroon.
    NB Rivers senegal and gabia are also navigable.
    Artificial lake are l.nasser, kainji, cobora bassa and volta.

Pipeline Transport

Transport water, petroleum and gas
Biggest concentration is in north africa.

Air Transport

Major airlines in africa are;

  • South africa
  • Kenya airlines
  • Ethiopia airlines
  • Egypt airline
  • Nigeria airways 

Cable(wire) Transport

Mainly used to transport electricity from the power stations to the consumers.


Advantages of road   Disadvantages of road 
Wide spread  Traffic jams
Flexible  Maximum load is limited 
Quite fast  High rate of accident
Goods delivered directly to their destination   Few passengers at a time
Wide variety of goods can be transported by road   Greatly affected by weather.
Convenient all time  Expensive to maintain
   Gases cause air pollution
Railway advantages  Railway disadvantages
Convenient for bulky goods  Expensive to build
Minimal accidents  Expensive to buy wagon, trains 
Cost is low for transport  Gauge are narrow
No traffic jam  Require flat land to build
More durable  Stopping point are far
Not greatly attected by thief  Not economical when quantities are small 
Low consumption of fuel  Not flexible
Comfortable for passengers travelling over long distances   Greatly affected when there are breakdown 
Does not require alot of labour  Generally slow
   Very dependent on infrastrature only when there is a  railway
Water transport advantages  Water transport disadvantages
Occurs naturally therefore no maintaince  Slow form of transport
Suitable for bulky goods   Waterfalls and rapids
Cheapest  Expensive to construct ports
Suitable for transporting special goods e.g.petroleum  Affected by storms
Can reach many parts of the world bordered by water bodies   Not accessed by all especially landlocked countries
  Harsh climate 
Air transport advantages  Air transport disadvantages
Fastest form of transport   Expensive to buy and maintain aeroplanes
Few theft cases   Not used for bulky goods
Transport distant countries  Operate on strict timetable
Low damage of goods  carry limited number of people
   Affected by weather
   Require high qualified people
Pipeline tranport advantages  Pipeline tranport disadvantages
Enables continousflow of commodities  Expensive to build
It is fast   Great losses through leakage
Laid on both land and in the sea   Not flexible
Low maintenance cost  Economical only where gas and oil is constant
Reduces damages on roads   Cannot transport solid commodity
Reduces cases of theft  Cannot transport people
Require very little human labour.   
Cable transport advantages  Cable transport disadvantages
Delivery of the product is constant  Expensive to install
Used above the surface and underground  Dangerous if wire drop to the ground
Require very little human labour.   
Used above the surface and underground  
Power can be transported over long distances  
Last for long time  

Current Development in Communication Systems in Africa

The recent ICT development iclude the introduction and uses of;

  1. Mobile phones
    Majority replaced the fixed line telephones
  2. Card phones
    Used when making calls from public telephone booth instead of coins
  3. Computers
  4. Used mainly to send emails, browse the internet, look for jobs
  5. Cybercafes are opened in most towns
  6. Many radio and television stations(digital)
  7. Fibre – optic cable
  8. Makes connectivity faster and cheaper


Is the movement of people from one place to another for leisure, sightseeing and also for business.

Main Tourist Attractions in Africa

  • Wildlife
  • Historical sites
    This tells us about the way of life of the people inthe past.
    1. e.g pyraids and ruins in egypt.
    2. Slave forts and port of goree island- senegal
    3. Shimoni caves – mombasa
    4. Old slave market – zanzibar
    5. Olduvai gorge – tanzania
    6. Kariandusi and olorgesailie – kenya
    7. Sango bay – uganda
    8. Lalibela and lowervalley of river omo – ethiopia
  • Beaches
    Morocco, algeria, south africa, tunisia, mauritius and kenya.
  • Scenery
    Snow – capped mountain
    Great rift valley
    River nile and wind surfing
    Hot spring and geysers
  • Cultural heritage
    African traditional crats, artifacts
    Mode of dressing
    Traditional foods
  • Climate
    Warm climate

Main Tourist Destinations in Africa

Is a place where tourist desire to visit.

 Country in africa    Main tourist attraction 
 Kenya Game parks and reserves e.g. maasai mara, tsavo,
warm beaches, historical and pre-historical sites
e.g. koobi fora, gedi ruins
 South Africa Kruger national park, table mountains, roben island,
coastal beaches
 Egypt Pyramids at giza, valley of king, cairo musuem, nile
cruises ,library at alexandria
Zimbabwe Victoria falls, lake kariba, hwango national park, city
of harare 
Mauritius Coastal beaches and warm climate, black gorges
national park, ruins of europeans settlement
Morocco  Ancient town of marakach, sandy beaches, berber
villages, atlas mountains. 


Contributions of Tourism to the Economy

  1. Earn foreign exchange
  2. Employment oppounities
  3. Development of infrastructure network
  4. Led to growth of the building and construction of industries
  5. Creation of market for goods and services
  6. Increase in agricultural activities
  7. Improvement on retions between africa and rest of the world

Challenges Facing Tourism in Africa

  1. Overdependence on tourists from particular regions
  2. Poor marketing of destinations
  3. Stiff competition from other tourist destinations
  4. Competition for land e.g. agricultural and wildlife
  5. Poaching
  6. Environmental threats and calamities
  7. Human-wildlife conflicts
  8. Political instability
  9. High taxation costs and fees
  10. Insecurity
  11. Diseases

Possible Solutions to Challenges Facing Tourism

  1. Making african destination cheaper
  2. Diversify tourist attraction
  3. Manage well wildlife and human conficts
  4. Improving transport and communication network.
  5. Market tourist destinations
  6. Improve and maintain peace and security
  7. Encourage group tourist visit
  8. Reducing the cost of tourist trade e.g. cut down trees


The growth and development of towns and urban centres

Capital cities in africa
Is town where central government operates from
Also called seat of government

Reasons for the Rapid Growth of Towns in Africa

  1. Transport systems e.g. road and railway.e.g.nairobi, kisumu, addis ababa.
  2. Establishment of industies and commercial activities e.g.lagos, dar es salaam.
  3. Mining activities – johannesburg, tema and accra.
  4. Administrative centres e.g.nairobi, cairo, addis ababa, kampala, abidjan, antananarivo.
  5. Functions as a port e.g. kinshasa, abidjan, lagos, maputo, mombasa, dar el salaam.
  6. Political factor e.g. dodoma, abuja
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