Tuesday, 01 November 2022 09:44

Agriculture - Class 8 Social Studies Revision Notes

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  • This is the growing of crops and the keeping of animals

Settlers Farming

  • Settlers are the Europeans who came and grabbed fertile land for farming

White Highlands

  • Also known as crown land
  • These are fertile areas that were grabbed from africa ns

African Native Reserves

  • These were the infertile lands
  • Africans were congested in reserves
  • They were agriculturaly less productive
  • Africans provided cheap forced labour in the settlers farm

Settlers Farming Areas

  1. Eastern highlands
    1. Nyeri
    2. Murang’a
    3. Embu
    4. Kiambu
    5. Meru
    6. Thika
    7. Nanyuki
    8. Nyandarua
    9. Laikipia
  2. Western Highlands(Rift Valley)
    1. Kericho
    2. Uasin gishu
    3. Trans nzoia
    4. Sotik
    5. Nakuru
    6. Bomet
  3. Coastal Region
    1. Taita taveta
    2. Kilifi
    3. Voi
    4. Malindi

Features/characteristics Of Settlers Farming

  • Obtained cheap labour from the africans
  • Introduced commercial farming i.e.cash crop farming
  • Introduced new crop farming
  • Practised farming in the cool and wet highlands i.e.the white highlands
  • Practised mixed farming
  • Kept beef cattle in ranches in dry areas
  • Grew sisal and cotton in dry areas.
  • Introduced plantation farming
  • Used machines and fertilizers
  • Practised crop rotation
  • Irrigation farming was done in drier areas.
  • Effects of settlers farming

Positive effects

  • Introduced cash crop/commercial crops e.g.coffee,tea,pyrthrum,etc
  • Introduced mechanised farming
  • Introduced the use of farm inputs e.g.fertilizers and chemicals.
  • Introduced exotic breed cattle
  • Introduced plantation or large scale farming
  • Led to industrialzation
  • Led to development of infrastructure i.e.roads and railways.
  • Led to urbanization e.g kitale and eldoret
  • Introduced cross breeding
  • Led to formation of cooperatives

Negative Effects

  • Africans lost thier land i.e. became squatters
  • Creation of african native reserves
  • Led to forced labour
  • Disrupted the communal land ownership i.e. land tenure system.
  • Africans were over exploited
  • Led to increased racism/racial discrimination
  • Development of the wtite highlands only
  • Introduced payment of taxes to africans

Exotic Breed Cattle

  • Jersey
  • Fresians
  • Guernsey
  • Aryshire

Exotic Beef Cattle

  • Aberdeen angus
  • Hereford
  • Chalorais

Exotic Dual Cattle

  • Sahiwal
  • Indegenous cattle
  • Zebu
  • Boran

Settlement Schemes

  • These were areas set aside by the government tothe landless.
  • Ways of acquiring the settlement schemes
  • Buying land from settlers
  • Reclamation of hostile areas i.e.
  • Spraying areas infested with tsetse flies
  • Irrigating arid and semi-arid areas
  • Draining swamps
  • Forest excision i.e clearing the forest to settle the squatters.
  • Formation of land buying companies.

Reasons For Establishment Of Settlement Schemes

  • To settle the squatters
  • To boost food production
  • To reduce population pressure
  • To ease congestion
  • To improve peoples’ living standards

Distribution Of Settlement Schemes

  • Mwea Irrigation Schemes
  • Ol Kalou Salient Schemes
  • Jomo Kenyatta At Mpeketoni Lamu
  • Bura-galolo Settlement Schemes
  • Island Farms In Central
  • Muguga jet Schemes - Central
  • Ahero - nyanza
  • Lambwe Valley - Nyanza
  • Matunda Settlement
  • Ravine/ Sabatia

Benefits Of Settlement Schemes

  • Landless people have been settled
  • Waste land have been put into use
  • Have created employment
  • Have boosted food production
  • Have united people in the country
  • Have led to development
  • Agricultural export from schemes earn foreign exchange
  • Have reduced population pressure

Problems Facing Settlement Schemes

  • Soil erosion
  • Population pressure
  • Poor means of transport
  • Lack of social amenities
  • Lack of title deeds
  • Sometimes there is ethnic hatred in the schemes
  • Lack of modern equipment
  • Sometimes farmers are unable to repay loans
  • Mismanagement of schemes

Irrigation Schemes

  • Irrigation is growing of crops using water
  • They include;
    1. Mwea irrigation schemes
    2. Perkerra irrigation schemes
    3. Ahero irrigation schemes

Mwea Irrigation Schemes

  • It is in Kirinyaga County
  • It is the oldest in the country
  • It was established in 1954
  • The main reason for establishment was to settle the landless
  • It has black cotton soil
  • This region slopes gently to support flow of water by gravity.
  • Source of water - Water comes from river Thiba and Nyamindi which are tributaries of River Tana
  • Main crop grown
    1. Rice (paddy)

Other Crops Grown

  1. Water melon
  2. Sukumawiki
  3. Maize
  4. French beans

Method Of Irrigation

  • Canal irrigation method
  • Canals direct water into the rice field called basins
  • Water flows by gravity

Perkerra irrigation scheme

  • Located in Baringo County
  • Was established in 1954
  • The main reason for establishment was to bring more land under cultivation
  • Water for irrigation comes from River Perkerra

Crops Grown

  1. Seed maize (main crop)
  2. Chillies
  3. Tomatoes
  4. Onions
  5. Watermelons
  6. Pawpaws

Method Of Irrigation

  • Uses furrow irrigation method
  • Involves construction of furrows and ridges
  • Crops grown on the ridges
  • Water directed to the furrows
  • NB; the main reason why irrigation schemes were established was to boost food production.

Contribution Of Irrigation Schemes To The Economy Of Kenya

  • Create employment
  • Source of income
  • Have led to indutrialization
  • Have improved people’s living standards
  • Have led to development of roads
  • Earn Kenya foreign exchange
  • Unproductive land have been put into use
  • Have led to urbanization
  • They are sources of livelihood

Problems Facing Irrigation Schemes

  • Pest and diseases
  • Mismanagement of irrigation schemes
  • Long distances to the market
  • Silting of canals
  • Water shortages
  • High cost of farm inputs e.g.seeds and fertilizers
  • Delayed payment
  • Lack of agricultural extension officers
  • Exhaustion of soil

Horticultural Farming

  • This is the growth of fruits, flowers, and vegetable
  • Viticulture - This is the growth of fruits only
  • Floriculture -This is the growth of vegetable only.it is also called market gardening

Features/characteristics Of Horticulture

  • Practised in areas with fertile soil
  • It is capital intensive
  • It is labour intensive
  • The farms are intensively cultivated
  • Crops are grown in green houses
  • Practised in both small and large scale
  • High quality seeds and fertilizers are used
  • Mainly done for sale
  • Regular spraying is done

Crops Grown In Horticultural Farming

  • Vegetable
  • Spinach
  • Kales
  • French beans
  • Onions
  • Baby corn
  • Cauliflower
  • Tomatoes
  • Cabbages
  • Fruits
  • Bananas
  • Mangoes
  • Apples
  • Avocadoes
  • Paws paws
  • Pineapples
  • Oranges
  • Pears
  • Flowers
  • Roses
  • Orchids
  • Carnations
  • Gladioli

Problems Facing Horticultural Farming To The Economy Of Kenya

  • Delayed payment
  • pest and diseases
  • poor means of transport and communication
  • high transport charges
  • expensive farm inputs
  • bad weather
  • lack of cooperative societies
  • long distance to the market
  • lack of capital
  • lack of refrigeration facilities

Horticultural Farming In Netherlands

  • Netherlands is in Europe
  • also known as Holland
  • it is a lowland
  • it grows flowers,fruits,and vegetable
  • done on reclaimed land called polders
  • they reclaim land using special walls called dykes
    NB they practice farming in polders because the land is scarce
  • They mostly use green/glass houses
  • This helps them to practice horticultural farming throughout the year
  • Netherlands is densely populated and this provides a ready market.

Comparison of horticultural farming in Kenya and Netherlands .

Kenya  Netherlands 
.done on natural land  Done on polders
 grows flowers fruits and vegetable  Grows flowers fruits and vegetable
 few green houses are used  Mostly green houses are used
 lack of capital for expansion  Capital is available for expansion
 little mechanization  Highly mechanised
 skilled labour is inadequate  Great ues of skilled labour is required
 poor means of transport  Well developed transport
 less scientific method used  Uses scientific method of farming
 production is low  Production is high
 farmers are indequately skilled  Farmers are andequately skilled


Fish Farming

  • This is the rearing of fish in ponds or tanks
  • It is also called aquaculture
  • The best soil to construct a fish pond is clay soil
  • Fish kept
    1. trout
    2. tilapia
    3. mudfish

Fish Farming In Kenya

  1. Sagana - Kirinyaga County
  2. Kabaru - Nyeri County
  3. Kibos - Kisumu County
  4. Ljipe - Taita Taveta County
  5. Aruba Dam-taita Taveta
  6. Bamburi - Mombasa County
  7. Borabu - Kisii County
  8. Homa Bay - Homa Bay

Fish Farming In Japan

  • Japan is in Asia
  • It is the leading producer of fish in the world
  • Done in the sheltered areas along the coast
  • Practised in the four islands
    • Hokkaido
    • Kyoshu
    • Honshu
    • Shikoku
  • it has large market for fish
  • fish are sold through cooperatives
  • fish farming is highly mechanized
  • highly supported by the government
  • fish have high demand
  • fish kept
    • oyster
    • prawns
    • trout eeels

Comparison Of Fish Farming In Kenya And Japan

 Kenya   Japan 
 Fish reared are trout,tilapia and mudfish  Fish reared are oyster, prawns,trout and eels
 Capital is inadequate  Adequate capital
 Few research and training centres  Many modern fisheries and research centres
 Fish kept in fish ponds  Fishing done in the sheltered sea
 Limited/small market  Large market for fish
 Low demand for fish  High demand for fish
 Cooperatives are not developed  Copperatives are well developed
 Not highly supported by the government  Highly supported by the government
 Most fish are consumed locally  Most of the fish are exported
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