Tuesday, 01 November 2022 12:38

Mining - Class 8 Social Studies Revision Notes

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  • This is the extraction of minerals from the ground
  • Major minerals in Kenya
    • soda ash
    • limestone
    • flourspar
    • diatomite
    • marbles gemstone
    • salt


  • found in areas with sedimentary soil/rocks

Mining Areas

  • Bamburi- Mombasa County
  • Athi River- Machakos County
  • Homa Hills- Homa Bay
  • Sultan Hamud- Makueni County
  • Koru- Kisumu County

mining methods used is open cast method

Uses Of Limestone

  • Making cement
    Making fertilizer
    Manufacturing paints
    Treating water
    Used in road construction


  • mined at kimwarer in kerio valle,elgeyo marakwet county.
  • Method used is open cast mining method

Uses Of Flourspar

  • Making toothpaste
  • Making sulphuric acid
  • Making cement
  • Making cans
  • Strengthening iron, steel and alluminium
  • Used in oil refineries


  • Mined at Kariandusi near Gilgil in Nakuru County
  • Mining method is open cast method

Uses Of Diatomite

  • Making paintspreserving fertilizer
  • Making water filters
  • Making heat insultors
  • Used in dry cleaning industries
  • Used to make plasters
  • Making soaps


  • Mined at Magadi-kajiado County, Ngomeni and Fundisa In Kilifi County

Uses Of Salt

  • Flavouring food
  • Preserving food
  • Making soap
  • Making dyes
  • Flavouring animal feeds
  • Manufacturing papers
  • Making chemicals
  • Making drugs


  • Marble is a hard smooth stone
  • Has white and dark colours

Mining Methods

  • Quarrying or open cast

Mining Areas

  • Athi River- Machakos
  • Kerio Valley- Marakwet County


  • Making ornaments- rings, necklaces, bangles, earring
  • Making statues


  • Also called precious stone.

Types Of Gemstone

  • rubies
  • garnets
  • tourmalines

Mined in Voi and Mwatate in Taita Taveta County


  • Making bangles
  • Making earings
  • Making necklaces

Distribution Of Minerals In Kenya


Contribution Of Minerals To The Economic Of Kenya

  1. Create employment
  2. Earns foreign exchange
  3. It is a source of income
  4. Has led to urbanization
  5. The government earns revenue
  6. Has promoted trade
  7. Has improved people’s living standards

Effects Of Mining On The Environment

  1. Noise pollution
  2. Air pollution
  3. Ugliness of the landdestruction of vegetation
  4. Pits left can result to death of people and animals
  5. Pits become breeding areas for snails and mosquitoes
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