Tuesday, 26 October 2021 12:47

Health Education - Grade 5 Science and Technology Revision Notes

Share via Whatsapp


Water borne diseases

  • Diseases- illnesses that affect our health.
  • Waterborne diseases - are diseases that are spread by contaminated water or food.
    They include:
    • Typhoid
    • Bilharzia
    • Cholera
    • Dysentery

Typhoid

  • It is caused by bacteria that are spread through eating contaminated food and drinking contaminated water

Signs and symptoms

  • Body weakness
  • Headache
  • Rash on neck and abdomen
  • Fever
  • Vomiting and diarrhoea

Prevention of typhoid

  • Washing hands and utensils before handling or eating food.
  • Washing fruits before eating and washing vegetables before cooking.
  •  Cooking food well before eating. Always cover food.
  •  Boiling water before drinking
  • Spraying the house and the toilet with an insecticide to kill flies.

Bilharzia

  • Bilharzia, also known as snail fever, is a disease caused by a parasitic worm. A person becomes infected when he or she comes into direct contact with fresh water that has snails carrying the parasitic worm.

Signs and symptoms of bilharzia

  • Body rashes
  • General body weakness
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Vomiting and diarrhoea

Prevention of bilharzia

  • Cleaning and disinfecting swimming pool water.
  • Draining stagnant water. Avoid walking in stagnant water.
  • Drinking safe and clean water
  •  Bathing or showering using clean water
  • Weaving gloves and gumboots when working in waterlogged areas.

Cholera

  • Cholera is caused by bacteria that spread through eating contaminated food and drinking contaminated water.

Signs and symptoms of cholera

  • Body weakness
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Vomiting and watery diarrhoea
  • Loss of fluids and severe dehydration.

Prevention of cholera

  • Washing hands before handling or eating food.
  • Washing fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking.
  • Cooking food well before eating. Always cover food.
  • Boil water before drinking it.
  • Spraying the house and the toilet with an insecticide to kill flies.

Dysentery

  • Is caused by bacteria that are spread through food and drinking water that is contaminated.

Signs and symptoms of dysentery

  • High fever and chills
  • Abdominal pains
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  •  Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • Severe diarrhoea

Prevention of dysentery

  • Washing fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking
  • Boiling water before drinking
  • Spraying the house and the toilet with an insecticide to kill flies
  • Washing hands before handling or eating food.


External Body parasites

  • Include parasites such as fleas, jiggers and mites that live on the
  • outer surface of the body especially the skin.
  • Soil transmitted diseases.

Lice

  • Lice are tiny parasitic insects that live in the clothing and bedding of an infected person. Lice travels to the skin of
     the infected person several times a day to feed on blood.
  • The most common places for bites are around the neck, shoulders, armpits, waist and groin. These are places where clothing seams are most likely to touch the skin.

Signs and symptoms of lice

  • Intense itching
  • Rash caused by an allergic reaction to body lice bites
    Red bumps on the skin
  • Thickened or darkened skin, usually near the waist or groin on the bed.
  • Itching of the head or scalp caused by lice found on the head.
  • Tiny red sores from scratching the scalp caused by lice found on the head.

Prevention and management of Lice

  • Improve personal hygiene and regular changing into clean, washed clothing.
  • All clothing, bed linens and towels used by the infected person should be washed with hot water and then dried.
  • Medicines that kill lices may be used to get rid of body lice.
  • Head lice treatment requires thorough combing of the hair to remove lice eggs.
  • Avoid sharing brushes or combs.
  • Shave hair.

Scabies

  • It's a skin disease caused by a mite. The mite causes an itchy, red rash to form on the skin. The mite can be transmitted
    through infected clothing or bedding.

Signs and symptoms of scabies

  • Severe and intense itching that gets worse at night
  • Continuous scratching of the infected area
  • Rashes and blisters on the skin
  • Sores in areas where a person has scratched the skin.

Prevention and management of scabies

  • Wash or dry-clean all clothes, towels and bed linens. When washing, use hot, soapy water. Dry the washed
    clothes.
  • Clean and vacuum carpets and rugs
  • Treat scabies with medication.

Jiggers

  • A jigger is a small, pinhead-sized parasitic insect. Jigger larvae live in the soil and feed on organic matter. Jiggers usually attack the feet and toes. Sometimes they attack the hands and fingers.

Signs and symptoms of jiggers

  • The affected part itches
  •  The infected person feels a lot of pain in their feet, making it difficult to walk.
  • The parasite may cause ulcers on the feet.
  • The feet of the infected person may swell
  • The toenails of the infected person may fall off
  • The parasite can cause deformed toes and fingers.

Prevention and management of jiggers.

  • Observe general cleanliness
  • Smear the floor and walls of mud houses with cod dung.
  • Avoid close and frequent interaction with animals that host the fleas, for example dogs.
  • Wear shoes whenever possible.
  • Use antiseptics and petroleum jelly to treat jiggers. Use gloves when treating jiggers and the wash your hands when done


Internal Body parasites

Common internal parasites

  • They are parasites such as roundworms that live within the body, especially in the intestines.

Roundworms

  • A roundworm is an internal body parasite that infects the small intestine of a human being. It gets nutrients from the small intestine of the infected person.
  • It is a soil- transmitted parasite. Human faeces can cause contamination if an infected person passes faeces on soil or near a source of water.
  • A person gets infected if he or she eats or drinks contaminated food or water.

Signs and symptoms of roundworm infection

  • Abdominal pain
  • Worms visible in faeces Slow growth in children
  • Diarrhoea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss

Prevention and management of roundworm infection

  • Wash food properly before cooking. Also wash hands after using the toilet
  • Wash any utensils and cooking surfaces after using them.
  • Filter and boil water before drinking it
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water before handling or eating food.
  • Avoid common bathing areas, especially if they are dirty.
  • Clean hands with soap and water after playing outside
  • Roundworms are treated with medicine.

Pinworms

  • Swallowing pinworm eggs causes a pinworm infection.
  • The eggs are found in contaminated food or drink. If you do not wash your hands well, your fingers can carry pinworms.
  • The eggs then hatch in the intestines. Female pinworms move to the anal area to lay their eggs, which often results in anal itching.
  • When you scratch the itchy area, the eggs cling to your fingers and get under your fingernails.
  • The eggs then get transferred to other surfaces, such as toys, bed linens or toilet seats. The eggs can also be transferred from contaminated fingers to food, liquids, clothes or other people.

Signs and symptoms of pinworm infection

  • Disturbed sleep
  • Loss of appetite
  • Itching of the anal area, especially at night
  • Severe irritability
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss

Prevention and management of pinworm infection

  • Take a bath in the morning and wash the anal area
  • Change underwear and bed sheets daily
  • Wash bed sheets, night clothes, underwear and towels in hot water to kill pinworm eggs.
  • Avoid scratching the anal area. Trim your nails so eggs do not collect. Avoid biting your nails.
  • Thoroughly wash your hands after visiting the toilet and before eating
  • Visit the doctor for treatment.

Tape worms

  •  Tapeworms are intestinal parasites that are shaped like a tape measure.
  • Tapeworm eggs normally enter the human
  • Body from animals through food, especially raw or undercooked meat.
  • People can also become infected if there is contact with animal faeces or contaminated water.

Signs and symptoms of tapeworm infection

  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Inflammation of the intestines
  • General weakness
  • Diarrhoea and weight loss
  • Lack of appetite and feeling dizzy
  • Eggs, larvae or segments from the tapeworm in stool.

Prevention and management of tapeworm infection

  • Visit a doctor for treatment
  • Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water after visiting the toilet and before eating.
  • Always wash all vegetables with clean water
  • Always wash all fruits with clean water
  • Properly dispose of animal and human faeces
  • Cook meat properly. This will kill larvae or eggs of tapeworms
  • Do not eat raw or uncooked mean
  • Treat pets, such as dogs for tapeworms
  • Make sure all work surfaces, especially in the kitchen, are regularly cleaned and disinfected.

Hookworms

  • Hookworms are soil transmitted parasites. Human faeces can cause contamination if an infected person passes faeces on soil.
  • When a person comes into contact with this soil, hookworm larvae can pass through the skin of the person.
  • This can happen if the person walks barefoot on soil that contains the larvae or swallows contaminated soil particles for example on unwashed vegetable leaves.

Signs and symptoms of hookworm infection

  • A skin rash that is red and itchy
  • Fever
  • Stomach pain and diarrhoea
  • Anaemia
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Tiredness and weakness
  • Stunted growth
  • Malnutrition

Prevention and management of hookworm infection

  • Visit a doctor for treatment
  • Wear shoes, especially in areas with soil
  • Avoid eating unwashed foods that may be contaminated with hookworms
  • Pass faeces in toilets and latrines
  • Do not use fertilizer made from raw human faeces
  • Wear gloves and gumboots when gardening
  • Treat pets for hook work

Download Health Education - Grade 5 Science and Technology Revision Notes.


Tap Here to Download for 30/-




Why download?

  • ✔ To read offline at any time.
  • ✔ To Print at your convenience
  • ✔ Share Easily with Friends / Students