Wednesday, 30 March 2022 08:55

Wellness - Grade 4 Physical Health Education Revision Notes

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Dealing with Emotions.

  • They are also called feelings. they include joy, pain, sadness, love and anger.
  • Sporting requires a state of wellness: which is a state of complete physical, mental, emotion and social well.
  • The immediate effects of negative emotions like anxiety are:
    • Lightheadedness.
    • Muscle tension.
    • Elevated heart and breathing rates.
    • Increased blood flow to the brain and away from other organs
    • Nausea
    • Frequent urination and diarrhea
  • Positive emotions, on the other hand, can have opposite effect. Laughter , for example, can:
    • Relieve tension throughout the body and within organs
    • Relieve the subsequent side effects of depression and anxiety.
    • Lower blood pressure.
  • The longer- term physiological effects of emotions include;
    • Insomnia
    • Damage to kidneys
    • Digestive and gastro-intestinal problems
    • Chronic respiratory disorder
    • damage to cardiovascular system.

Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Sports Performance

  • Drug abuse: is the use of drugs for a purpose it was not intended for.

Athletes And Drug Abuse.

  • Athletes should be clean from abuse of alcohol and drugs
  • Doping is illegal and athletes have been disqualified because of the same.
  • Athletes should therefore abstain from abuse of drugs because it could lead to:
    • Addiction
    • Organ failure
    • Severe mood swings
    • Inability to perform properly in the sporting activity.
    • An increased risk of suffering from a heart attack or stroke.

How to tell someone is abusing drugs

  1. Loss of interest in school
  2. Changing friends.
  3. Becoming moody, negative , cranky or worried all the time.
  4. Ask to be left alone a lot.
  5. Having trouble concentrating.
  6. Sleeping a lot
  7. Getting into fights.
  8. Having red, puffy eyes.
  9. Loss or gain of weight.
  10. Coughing a lot.
  11. Having a running nose all of the time.

Effects of Drug Abuse in Athletes

  • It has many negative effects such as:

    1. Suspensions and Bans - Many professional athletic organizations have strict rules against using performance- enhancing and recreational drugs. Athletes who violate these rules may face serious consequences, such as suspensions or bans. In some cases, prior titles, medals or prizes may be revoked. professional athletes such as Lance Armstrong, Steve Howe and Brett Favre have suffered these consequences.

    2. Job loss and early retirement - Drug abuse can impair an athlete's ability to focus and otherwise negatively affect an athlete's performance. Certain drugs will give rise to a number of side effects and may be associated with performance -hindering withdrawal symptoms. Some athletes may be forces into early retirement because of the negative effects of their drug use.

    3. Health problems-  Taking anabolic steroids can result in liver and kidney damage, hypertension, and heart problems. Mental effects can include depression, anger and violence. Men may also experience impotence , infertility, and development of certain female sexual characteristics( e.g enlargement of breast tissue), while women may experience menstrual changes and development of masculine features.
       - Andro use can lead to side effects such as decreased sperm production, shrinking of the testicles , and increased breast side in men. In women, it can lead to the development of certain masculine qualities, such as deeper voice and male-pattern hair loss. For both men and women, taking the drug may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.
       - Human growth hormone use is associated with joint pain, fluid retention, muscle weakness and vision problems. It can also lead to carpal tunnel syndrome, high cholesterol, hypertension, enlarged heart, and diabetes.
      - Excessive diuretic use can cause dehydration, muscle cramps, dizziness, rash, gout, potassium deficiency, poor balance and coordination, low blood pressure , and even death.
      -The risk of using erythropoietin include heart attack, stroke, and pulmonary embolism.
      - Alcohol use may impair problem-solving ability, memory, learning, and coordination and can lead to liver and neurological damage.
      - Marijuana can negatively affect short-term memory, learning, balance , coordination, and ability to focus.
      - short- term effects of amphetamine use include headaches, convulsions, hallucinations and paranoia. Long -term effects may include permanent nerve damage and death.
      - Cocaine can cause damage to the heart and respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems.

    4. Opioids such as heroin and prescription painkillers have a high risk of overdose. When these drugs are injected, the user's risk for contracting infectious diseases increases significantly.

    5. Addiction - The abuse of certain drugs, such as opioids and stimulants, can lead to addiction. Addiction is a brain disease that involves compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Athletes who are addicted to drugs or alcohol may have a difficult time quitting without professional treatment.

    6. Death - Amphetamine use may lead to fatal hemorrhagic stroke or heart attack. Abusing opioids like heroin or prescription drugs also carries a high risk of lethall overdose. College basketball player Len Bias and professional hockey player Derek Boogaard both died of fatal drug overdose.

Stereotypes And Drug Abuse.

  • A stereotype is an untrue belief of a particular type of person or thing. Some of the common stereotypes associated with drugs include;
    • An athlete will become a better performer.
    • A learner will become better in academics
    • They make a person become popular.

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