Monday, 13 September 2021 07:36

Food and Nutrition - class 8 science revision notes

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Nutritional Requirements For Special Groups

Nutritional Needs For A Pregnant Or Expectant Mother

  • Should be rich in proteins for proper growth of baby.
  • Should have carbohydratesfor properfunctioning of baby's organs and providing the mother with enough energy.
  • Should be rich in vitamin D and calcium for strong bones and teeth of the baby and formation of blood cells.
  • Should be rich in irons for healthy blood of the mother and foetus
  • Should have fibres to improve the mother's digeston and prevention of constipation
  • Should have plenty of fluids for good production of milk and maintenance of properlevel of amniotic fluid.

Nutritional Needs of Lactating Or Breastfeeding Mother.

  • Should be rich in irons to replace the blood lost during birth.
  • Should be rich in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus for recovery and strengthening of teeth and bones.
  • Should have vitamins to protect the mother against infection.

Nutritional Needs of Infants

Infants are children below 2years.

The best food for them is breast milk as it is wholesome ie it contains all the nutrients required by the body.

Advantages of breast milk

  • It is wholesome.
  • It has colostrum that gives natural immunity.
  • It is readily available in the right form and right temperature.
  • It is free from diseases.
  • It does not cause allergies.
  • It is easy to digest.
  • It strengthens mother-child bond.

Advantages of bottle feeding.

  • Convenient when the mother has little or no milk.
  • Someone else can feed the baby when the motheris away.
  • Children born to HIV/AIDS mother cannot be infected through bottled milk.

Disadvantages of bottle feeding.

  • Might lack some nutrients.
  • Lacks colostrum.
  • Not readily available.
  • Children might develop allergies.
  • Should have extra fluids for production of milk.


This is the gradual introduction of semi solids foods to an infant. It is done at the age of 4-6months. Breast feeding should continue upto 2 years. Introduce one food item at a time.

Food Poisoning.

This is an illness of the stomach caused by eating foods containing harmful substances.

Agents of food poisoning.

  • Micro-organism.
  • Chemicals.

Symptoms of food poisoning.

  • Violent vomiting.
  • Severe headache.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Fever.
  • Feeling weak and dizzy.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Nausea
  • Muscle paralysis.
  • Constipation.

Methods of prevention food poisoning.

  • Proper storage of food to avoid contamination.
  • Proper preservation of food.
  • Propersanitation and disposal of garbage.
  • Hygienic handling of food.
  • Proper cooking of food.
  • Thourough washing of hands before handling food.
  • Avoid buying damaged fruits and canned foods.
  • Proper washing of utensils and dishes used for food

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