Tuesday, 14 September 2021 12:43

Adjectives - Class 8 English Revision Notes

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An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun. To describe or modify means to provide additional information about nouns or pronouns. To modify further means to change something slightly.

Writers and speakers modify an idea or image by choosing certain describing words, which are called adjectives. Hence, these adjectives are also called modifiers. Adjectives are like word cameras. They are words that describe colours, sizes and shapes. Adjectives help you capture how the world around you looks and feels.

Definite and Indefinite Adjectives

These are adjectives which tell how many or how much. They give the number or the quantity, either specific or approximate, of the noun in question. They are also referred to as numerals

  • Three elephants were killed by the game rangers.
  • He bought several houses in Kileleshwa.
  • Don’t put much sugar in the tea!

More examples of numerals

 Numbers   Amount   Approximate 

Adjectives that are in form of numbers are used with countable nouns:

  • Two calves were born yesterday.
  • Five chimpanzees performed funny tricks.
  • Many children like dinosaurs.

A definite or indefinite adjective may look like a pronoun, but it is used differently in a sentence. It is an adjective used to modify a noun.

Adjectives that are in farm of quantity are used with uncountable nouns.

  • Do you have any water in the house?
  • How much flour did you buy?

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

To compare two people, places or things, we use the comparative form of an adjective. To compare more than two, we use the superlative form of the adjective.
ONE PERSON: Kimenju is tall.
TWO PERSONS: Kimenju is taller than James.
THREE OR MORE: Kimenju is the tallest of all.

The comparative

The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare one thing, person or place  with another one. It is formed in two ways.

  1. For short adjectives, add -er.
    great + er = greater
    sweet + er = sweeter
    big + er = bigger
    light + er = lighter.
  2. For longer adjectives, the comparative is formed by using the word more before them.
    More handsome
    more remarkable
    More attractive
    more hardworking

    Most adjectives ending in -ful and -ous also form the comparative using more.
    More successful
    more curious
    more ferocious
    More beautiful
    more generous
    more prosperous

The Superlative

The superlative form of the adjective is used to compare a person, a place or a thing with more than one other of its kind.

  • Elephants are the largest animals in the jungle.
  • However, they are the most emotional animals.
    The superlative form of an adjective is formed in two ways.
  1. By adding -est to the short adjective
    great + est = greatest
    sweet + est = sweetest
    big + est = biggest
    light + est = light
  2. For longer adjectives, use most before them.
    most mysterious
    most awkward
    most successful
    most attractive
    The ending -er in the comparative becomes -est in the superlative while more becomes most.
    Adjective           comparative                superlative
    strong                stronger                       strongest
    quick                  quicker                         quickest
    adventurous      more adventurous       most adventurous
    co-operative      more co-operative         most co-operative

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